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  9. 19 12 Publicidad 2013 07 Convenio pdf

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data/radio/spain.ini, 361 b data/radio/tunesia.ini, 182 b data/radio/usa.ini, 212 b data/tv/!! languages !!.ini, 425 b data/tv/!! tv preview !!.ini, 171 b data/tv/!!!sex!!!.ini, 29.35 kb data/tv/!!espn motion!!.ini, 228 b data/tv/!!eztv!!.ini, 176 b data/tv/!!megaleech tv!!.ini, 1.00 kb data/tv/!!tvants!!.ini, 5.29 kb data/tv/!!tvkoo!!.ini, 403 b data/tv/!!tvuplayer!!.ini, 207 b data/tv/albania.ini, 1021 b data/tv/algeria.ini, 171 b data/tv/andorra.ini, 387 b data/tv/argentina.ini, 1.57 kb data/tv/aruba.ini, 614 b data/tv/australia.ini, 1.26 kb data/tv/austria.ini, 960 b data/tv/azerbejdzan.ini, 181 b data/tv/bahrain.ini, 707 b data/tv/bali.ini, 152 b data/tv/belgium.ini, 359 b data/tv/bosnia and herzegovina.ini, 469 b data/tv/brazil.ini, 2.51 kb data/tv/bulgaria.ini, 160 b data/tv/canada.ini, 1.15 kb data/tv/chile.ini, 351 b data/tv/china.ini, 1.78 kb data/tv/cuba.ini, 353 b data/tv/cyprus.ini, 162 b data/tv/czech republic.ini, 511 b data/tv/czech republics.ini, 326 b 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data/tv/syria.ini, 158 b data/tv/taiwan.ini, 945 b data/tv/thailand.ini, 343 b data/tv/tunesia.ini, 320 b data/tv/ukraine.ini, 176 b data/tv/uruguay.ini, 183 b data/tv/usa.ini, 7.43 kb data_en.exe, 69.63 kb dbpoweramp/dbpower amp/dmc-r11.5.exe, 2.07 mb dbpoweramp/dbpoweramp codec/dbpoweramp-codec-wmav91.exe, 5.59 mb dbpoweramp/portdb115/dbpoweramp 11.5.exe, 6.15 mb dbpoweramp/portdb115.rar, 5.54 mb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/cr-dx8mp.reg, 487 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/cr-dx8rp.reg, 487 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfxinstall-wmp.exe, 1.81 mb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/j.river-kg.exe, 118.50 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/misicmatch-kg.exe, 118.50 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/realplayer-kg.exe, 118.50 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/winamp-kg.exe, 118.50 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211/wmp-kg.exe, 118.50 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.8.211.rar, 1.91 mb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/core.nfo, 11.22 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-d72wp.exe, 139.00 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-dx7wp.reg, 487 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/file_id.diz, 370 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core/readme.html, 221 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.and.10.v7.210.winall.incl.keymaker-core.zip, 139.32 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/core.nfo, 11.30 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-df7mp/core.nfo, 11.30 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-df7mp/cr-df7mp.exe, 139.00 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-df7mp/cr-dx7mp.reg, 487 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-df7mp/file_id.diz, 370 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/cr-df7mp.zip, 137.01 kb dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/file_id.diz, 370 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core/readme.html, 221 b dfx/dfx.audio.enhancer.for.windows.media.player.9.v7.010.winall.incl.keymaker-core.zip, 142.12 kb dfx/dfxinstall-real.exe, 1.52 mb dfx/dfxinstall-winamp.exe, 1.55 mb dfx/dfxinstall-wmp.exe, 1.86 mb divx/divxinstaller.exe, 20.73 mb divxinstaller.exe, 14.05 mb dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/base64.cc, 2.21 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/base64.h, 959 b dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/copying, 17.59 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso.cc, 6.77 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso.h, 1.40 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/makefile, 362 b dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso/readme, 189 b dmg2iso/dmg2iso/dmg2iso.exe, 13.50 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso.pl, 3.79 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso.tar.gz, 9.86 kb dmg2iso/dmg2iso.zip, 12.29 kb dotnetfx3setup.exe, 2.81 mb dvd635r_jps5.exe, 625.50 kb dwgdwf.exe, 4.27 mb echovnc-2.00-setup.exe, 2.19 mb editplus/dic-uk-setup.exe, 294.50 kb editplus/dic-us-setup.exe, 292.50 kb editplus/epp230p375_0206/949.dll, 192.00 kb editplus/epp230p375_0206/editplus.exe, 1.36 mb editplus/epp230p375_0206/epp230p375.txt, 5.48 kb editplus/epp230p375_0206.zip, 684.37 kb editplus/epp230_en.exe, 992.50 kb editplus/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/file_id.diz, 125 b editplus/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/keygen.exe, 54.00 kb editplus/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/zwt.nfo, 8.08 kb editplus/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt/readme.html, 221 b editplus/es-computing.editplus.v2.30.371.update.only.incl.keymaker-zwt.zip, 52.27 kb fileformatconverters.exe, 27.08 mb fineprint/fineprint.v5.65/fineprint.v5.65/keygen.exe, 62.50 kb fineprint/fineprint.v5.65/fineprint.v5.65/please read.txt, 259 b fineprint/fineprint.v5.65/fineprint.v5.65/soft-vn.net daily software news.url, 301 b fineprint/fineprint.v5.65/fineprint.v5.65/zwt.nfo, 5.60 kb fineprint/fineprint.v5.65.rar, 62.07 kb fineprint/registryworkshop.exe, 734.73 kb fish tycoon/fishsavegame1.pts, 120.98 kb fish tycoon/fishtycoon.exe, 224.00 kb fish tycoon/fishtycoon.rwg, 26.00 mb fish tycoon/fmod.dll, 157.50 kb fish tycoon/fsgb1.pts, 120.98 kb fish tycoon/ftinfo.pts, 324 b fish tycoon/images/ftpre_reminder.jpg, 67.36 kb fish tycoon/raw_005.wdt, 100.00 kb fish tycoon/readme.txt, 529 b fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/application.dat, 241 b fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/arcade.dat, 470.50 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/background.jpg, 97.81 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/button_hover.jpg, 2.24 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/button_normal.jpg, 1.56 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/button_pressed.jpg, 2.14 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/channel.dat, 19.61 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/raw_002.wdt, 832 b fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/raw_003.wdt, 44.00 kb fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/raw_004.wdt, 8 b fish tycoon/reflexivearcade/reflexivearcade.dll, 940.07 kb fish tycoon/tanked.xm, 391.07 kb fish tycoon/unins000.dat, 2.84 kb fish tycoon/unins000.exe, 624.93 kb flash slideshow generator/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn/arn.nfo, 15.74 kb flash slideshow generator/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn/crack/flashslideshow.exe, 6.16 mb flash slideshow generator/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn/file_id.diz, 412 b flash slideshow generator/flash.slideshow.generator.v2.1.4.cracked-arn.zip, 3.56 mb flash slideshow generator/fssg_setup.exe, 2.97 mb folding@home windows smp client.exe, 4.78 mb freeware/bysoftfreebmicalculator.exe, 319.94 kb freeware/bysoftfreeram32.exe, 492.98 kb freeware/bysoftircontrol.exe, 1.30 mb freeware/bysoftnetworkmonitor.exe, 207.15 kb freeware/bysoftnetworksharebrowser.exe, 304.12 kb freeware/bysoftstayalivepro.exe, 648.36 kb freeware/internetpal/data.tag, 100 b freeware/internetpal/data1.cab, 923.17 kb freeware/internetpal/data1.hdr, 7.30 kb freeware/internetpal/file_id.diz, 495 b freeware/internetpal/lang.dat, 22.99 kb freeware/internetpal/layout.bin, 590 b freeware/internetpal/license.txt, 5.30 kb freeware/internetpal/os.dat, 450 b freeware/internetpal/readme.txt, 578 b freeware/internetpal/setup.exe, 72.00 kb freeware/internetpal/setup.ini, 99 b freeware/internetpal/setup.ins, 56.03 kb freeware/internetpal/setup.lid, 49 b freeware/internetpal/vendinfo.diz, 8.01 kb freeware/internetpal/_inst32i.ex_, 289.72 kb freeware/internetpal/_isdel.exe, 27.00 kb freeware/internetpal/_setup.dll, 34.00 kb freeware/internetpal/_sys1.cab, 171.35 kb freeware/internetpal/_sys1.hdr, 3.81 kb freeware/internetpal/_user1.cab, 3.25 kb freeware/internetpal/_user1.hdr, 4.19 kb freeware/internetpal.zip, 1.44 mb genuine check/genuinecheck.exe, 1.41 mb genuine check/wgaplugininstall.exe, 858.30 kb get/base.rob, 15.04 kb get/lang/albanian.lng, 3.86 kb get/lang/arabic.lng, 3.98 kb get/lang/belorussian.lng, 4.11 kb get/lang/brazilian.lng, 4.02 kb get/lang/bulgarian.lng, 3.46 kb get/lang/catalan.lng, 4.39 kb get/lang/chechen.lng, 4.53 kb get/lang/chinese traditional.lng, 3.41 kb get/lang/chinese_simplified.lng, 2.63 kb get/lang/croatian.lng, 3.45 kb get/lang/czech.lng, 4.10 kb get/lang/danish.lng, 4.20 kb get/lang/dutch.lng, 4.50 kb get/lang/english.lng, 4.17 kb get/lang/estonian.lng, 3.42 kb get/lang/farsi.lng, 3.14 kb get/lang/finnish.lng, 3.07 kb get/lang/french.lng, 4.63 kb get/lang/georgian.lng, 8.39 kb get/lang/german.lng, 4.34 kb get/lang/greek.lng, 4.34 kb get/lang/hebrew.lng, 3.61 kb get/lang/hungarian.lng, 4.26 kb get/lang/icelandic.lng, 3.33 kb get/lang/indonesian.lng, 4.13 kb get/lang/italian.lng, 4.36 kb get/lang/kazakh.lng, 3.97 kb get/lang/korean.lng, 3.49 kb get/lang/latvian.lng, 4.05 kb get/lang/lithuanian.lng, 4.27 kb get/lang/macedonian.lng, 3.40 kb get/lang/norwegian.lng, 3.94 kb get/lang/persian.lng, 3.71 kb get/lang/polish.lng, 4.36 kb get/lang/portuguese.lng, 4.21 kb get/lang/qvallidon.lng, 4.04 kb get/lang/romanian.lng, 4.44 kb get/lang/russian.lng, 4.40 kb get/lang/serbian.lng, 4.03 kb get/lang/slovak.lng, 3.91 kb get/lang/slovenian.lng, 1.90 kb get/lang/spanish.lng, 4.43 kb get/lang/thai.lng, 3.26 kb get/lang/turkish.lng, 4.39 kb get/lang/ukrainian.lng, 3.64 kb get/lang/uzbek.lng, 3.52 kb get/lang/vietnamese.lng, 8.34 kb get/links.dat, 17 b get/rapget.exe, 165.50 kb get/rapget.ini, 2.80 kb get/readme_en.txt, 8.91 kb get/readme_rus.txt, 10.13 kb get.rar, 221.76 kb gm692/gm/cdrom.iso, 1.45 mb gm692/gm/dfloppy.exe, 5.19 kb gm692/gm/floppy.img, 1.41 mb gm692/gm/gm.exe, 225.15 kb gm692/gm/gm.txt, 10.47 kb gm692/gm/gm.url, 50 b gm692/gm/wfloppy.exe, 313.40 kb gm692/gm692.zip, 986.10 kb goggleboxtv/goggleboxtv/serial.txt, 18 b goggleboxtv/goggleboxtv/setup.exe, 434.00 kb goggleboxtv/goggleboxtv/setup1.msi, 586.50 kb goggleboxtv/goggleboxtv/www.gold4rum.net.gif, 85.55 kb goggleboxtv/goggleboxtv.rar, 619.00 kb goggleboxtv/searchresults.asp, 13.96 kb goggleboxtv/trackingmore.asp, 13.96 kb google search/googlesearchcode.asp, 1.79 kb google search/searchresults.txt, 470 b googletoolbarinstaller.exe, 823.54 kb google_earth_pro_4.254_latest/gearth0011pi20/googleearthprowin_v254.exe, 14.31 mb google_earth_pro_4.254_latest/gearth0011pi20/tyrant.nfo, 330 b google_earth_pro_4.254_latest/sampleprint.jpg, 888.15 kb grabber_1.4.6a.rar, 1.06 mb handybackup/handybackup.zip, 2.02 mb handybackup/handy_backup_v5.4.rar, 72.77 kb handybackup/handy_backup_v5.461/handy backup v5.461/crack/crack.exe, 73.50 kb handybackup/handy_backup_v5.461/handy backup v5.461/crack/visit skillware - more free full downloads!.url, 146 b handybackup/handy_backup_v5.461/handy backup v5.461/virility.nfo, 7.10 kb handybackup/handy_backup_v5.461/hb.exe, 3.52 mb handybackup/handy_backup_v5.461.rar, 3.61 mb handybackup/hb-icq.exe, 256.29 kb handybackup/hb-outlook.exe, 241.29 kb handybackup/hb39.exe, 1.55 mb hdd driver/f6flpy32/temp.ima, 954.00 kb hdd driver/f6flpy32.exe, 346.56 kb hdd driver/sp32478.exe, 602.92 kb hdd life/hddlife pro 2.9.105.exe, 4.53 mb hdd life/hddlp2.9.109/hddlife_pro_v2.9.109/hddlife pro v2.9.109/crack/explosion.nfo, 5.80 kb hdd life/hddlp2.9.109/hddlife_pro_v2.9.109/hddlife pro v2.9.109/crack/hddlifepro.exe, 928.00 kb hdd life/hddlp2.9.109/hddlife_pro_v2.9.109/hddlife pro v2.9.109/setup.exe, 4.52 mb hdd life/hddlp2.9.109.rar, 5.41 mb hddlifepluginforgoogledesktop_v1_1.exe, 385.07 kb hitman2.zip, 919.49 kb i-sound[1].wma.mp3.sound.recorder.professional.v6.57.3.cracked-explosion.zip, 541.47 kb ibp-and-arelis-installer.exe, 11.90 mb icecold_reloaded/hotmail.txt, 22 b icecold_reloaded/infogreg.com.url, 195 b icecold_reloaded/readme.txt, 264 b icecold_reloaded.zip, 6.20 kb idman509b4.exe, 2.20 mb idm_509_up_by_snow/arn.patch.exe, 86.86 kb idm_509_up_by_snow/idm.patch.exe, 39.20 kb idm_509_up_by_snow/idman509.exe, 2.20 mb idm_509_up_by_snow/idm_509_up_by_snow.rar, 2.36 mb idm_509_up_by_snow/keymaker-core/core.nfo, 4.36 kb idm_509_up_by_snow/keymaker-core/keygen.exe, 3.38 kb idm_509_up_by_snow/revenge_keygen.exe, 55.81 kb incd-4.3.23.2.exe, 10.21 mb install_messenger_nous.exe, 17.20 mb internet download manager v5.09 build 3/extreme.nfo, 9.08 kb internet download manager v5.09 build 3/extreme.txt, 20.42 kb internet download manager v5.09 build 3/internet download manager v5.09 build 3.exe, 57.46 kb internet download manager v5.09 build 3.rar, 64.54 kb irfanview/irfanview_plugins_399.zip, 5.69 mb irfanview/iview399.exe, 1013.00 kb iron_speed_designer_setup.exe, 25.20 mb iusage77.zip, 1.01 mb jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/armaccess.dll, 11.50 kb jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/fff.nfo, 13.97 kb jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/fffjcp-patch.exe, 68.50 kb jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/file_id.diz, 427 b jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/full and free - everything you need....url, 113 b jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/jcpro400/setup.exe, 4.51 mb jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 4.0.0.28/jcpro400.zip, 4.49 mb jcreator_pro_4.0.0.28/jcreator pro 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katz/rarpwcrk412.rar, 349.57 kb katz/rpc412/readme.txt, 4.95 kb katz/rpc412/rpc412_setup.exe, 205.18 kb katz/rpc412.zip, 201.06 kb katz/vsm_www.softarchive.net/serial.txt, 43 b katz/vsm_www.softarchive.net/vistastartmenu_setup_2_1_pro_gift_en.exe, 1.22 mb katz/vsm_www.softarchive.net.rar, 1.20 mb katz/worldclock.high.html, 31.96 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/arrow_b_r_mini.gif, 53 b katz/worldclock.high_files/arrow_b_r_small.gif, 57 b katz/worldclock.high_files/cb_table_download.css, 7.18 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/com.htm, 2.80 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/common.js, 3.57 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/commonmessages.js, 387 b katz/worldclock.high_files/dhtml.css, 280 b katz/worldclock.high_files/elements_lists.css, 8.26 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/en.jpg, 3.77 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/general_crb_servicebox.css, 14.10 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/headmenus.js, 1.88 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/homepage.js, 5.19 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/layer.js, 2.47 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/menu.js, 2.37 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/pix.gif, 49 b katz/worldclock.high_files/register.css, 5.97 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/rollovers.js, 1.46 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/worldclock.gif, 628 b katz/worldclock.high_files/worldclock.jpg, 6.16 kb katz/worldclock.high_files/worldtimeclock.htm, 2.80 kb katz/worldclock.html, 17.32 kb katz/worldclock_files/default_article.css, 1.07 kb katz/worldclock_files/rightarrow.png, 807 b katz/worldclock_files/worldclock.js, 5.32 kb kf151/keyfinder.exe, 265.97 kb kf151/kf151.zip, 260.58 kb lg phone manager 1 3 0 4.exe, 22.22 mb lgrd6230.zip, 9.83 mb lime wire pro 4.8.1.exe, 3.26 mb limewire pro 4 12 6.zip, 4.02 mb limewirewin.exe, 350.70 kb m66zddbgfp/arpr.exe, 298.50 kb m66zddbgfp/arpr.log, 98 b m66zddbgfp/file_id.diz, 397 b m66zddbgfp/m66zddbgfp.zip, 263.99 kb m66zddbgfp/snd.nfo, 15.44 kb macromedia.fireworks.8.tnc.team/macromedia.fireworks.8.tnc.team/fireworks8-en.exe, 88.53 mb 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serials/nero6601ultraedition_yyssdevvzegotban/cracklib.txt, 33 b nero serials/nero6601ultraedition_yyssdevvzegotban/free-Xxx-passwords.html, 456 b nero serials/nero6601ultraedition_yyssdevvzegotban/nero6601ultraedition_yyssdevvzegotban.txt, 29 b nero serials/nero6601ultraedition_yyssdevvzegotban.zip, 814 b nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/changelog.txt, 784 b nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/license.txt, 4.22 kb nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/readme.txt, 2.41 kb nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/win32/neroaacdec.exe, 308.00 kb nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/win32/neroaacenc.exe, 828.00 kb nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/win32/neroaacenc_sse2.exe, 880.00 kb nero serials/nerodigitalaudio/win32/neroaactag.exe, 172.50 kb nero serials/nerodigitalaudio.zip, 1.14 mb nero serials/nerodvdvideoplugin_juranoodouldzjwx/cracklib.txt, 33 b nero serials/nerodvdvideoplugin_juranoodouldzjwx/free-Xxx-passwords.html, 456 b nero serials/nerodvdvideoplugin_juranoodouldzjwx/nerodvdvideoplugin_juranoodouldzjwx.txt, 29 b 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norton_ghost_corporate_edition_v8.3.rar, 3.24 mb o & o defrag/oodefrag85professionalenu.exe, 9.79 mb o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/beweisfoto_paypal.jpg, 196.21 kb o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/email_beweis01.jpg, 25.03 kb o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/email_beweis02.jpg, 33.09 kb o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/geld verdienen einfach genial absolut legal!.doc, 32.35 kb o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/geld verdienen einfach genial absolut legal!.pdf, 85.72 kb o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o.defrag.v8.5.1788.professional.edition.keygen/o&o/beweisfoto_paypal.jpg, 196.21 kb 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kb omplus_nt/client/data.tag, 124 b omplus_nt/client/data1.cab, 17.14 mb omplus_nt/client/data1.hdr, 65.58 kb omplus_nt/client/lang.dat, 4.57 kb omplus_nt/client/layout.bin, 609 b omplus_nt/client/os.dat, 450 b omplus_nt/client/setup.bmp, 331.52 kb omplus_nt/client/setup.exe, 70.00 kb omplus_nt/client/setup.ini, 101 b omplus_nt/client/setup.ins, 64.62 kb omplus_nt/client/setup.lid, 49 b omplus_nt/client/_inst32i.ex_, 291.00 kb omplus_nt/client/_isdel.exe, 27.00 kb omplus_nt/client/_setup.dll, 34.00 kb omplus_nt/client/_sys1.cab, 171.20 kb omplus_nt/client/_sys1.hdr, 3.81 kb omplus_nt/client/_user1.cab, 15.29 kb omplus_nt/client/_user1.hdr, 4.86 kb omplus_nt/omplus_manual_10-23-06.pdf, 2.15 mb omplus_nt/omplus_nt.zip, 29.42 mb omplus_nt/server/data.tag, 123 b omplus_nt/server/data1.cab, 9.45 mb omplus_nt/server/data1.hdr, 49.39 kb omplus_nt/server/lang.dat, 4.57 kb omplus_nt/server/layout.bin, 609 b omplus_nt/server/os.dat, 450 b omplus_nt/server/setup.bmp, 331.52 kb omplus_nt/server/setup.exe, 70.00 kb omplus_nt/server/setup.ini, 101 b omplus_nt/server/setup.ins, 59.24 kb.
    19-12 - Publicidad 2013-07 - Convenio.pdf

  10. SMX bernic bosq byD3 rar

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  12. Millar James Encyclopedia of Russian History txt

    other fileshare Size: 0 KB

    Author: millar james title: encyclopedia of russian history language: ru encyclopedia of russian history james r. millar © 2004 by macmillan reference  winston churchill’s well-known description of russia as a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” has been widely quoted because it has seemed so apt to western observers. the cyrillic alphabet appears mysterious to the uninitiated, as does the odd system of dual dates for key historical events. russia is huge and geographically remote, with over one hundred ethnic groups and as many languages. historically, russia stood on the margin of europe proper, and russian society experienced the renaissance and the reformation, which shaped modern europe, only partially and belatedly. physical distance and prolonged isolation from europe would be sufficient to enhance and promote a distinctive russian culture. russians have themselves debated whether they are more european, or more asian, or instead a unique slavic civilization т-» r-» i-» i-? л ^-» i-» destined to provide the world with a “third” way. preface nikolai gogol, one of russia’s earliest and most original writers, expressed this messianic view in his novel dead souls, where he offered a speeding troika, a carriage drawn by three horses, as a metaphor for russia: russia, are you not speeding along like a fiery matchless troika? beneath you the road is smoke, the bridges thunder, and everything is left far behind. at your passage the onlooker stops amazed as by a divine miracle. . . . russia, where are you flying? answer me! there is no answer. the bells are tinkling and filling the air with their wonderful pealing; the air is torn and thundering as it turns to wind; everything on earth comes flying past and, looking askance at her, other peoples and states move aside and make way. the encyclopedia of russian history is designed to help dispel the mystery of russia. it is the first encyclopedia in the english language to comprehend the entirety of russian history, from ancient rus to the most recent events in post-soviet russia. it is not aimed primarily at specialists in the area but at general readers, students, and scholars who are curious about russia, have historical events, dates, and persons they wish to explore or papers to write on the widely varying topics and individuals contained herein. contributors include top scholars in history, russian studies, military history, economics, social science, literature, philosophy, music, and art history. the 1,500 entries have been composed by over 500 scholars from 16 countries. all were instructed to “historize” their entries, thereby placing them in the larger context of russian history. each entry is signed and feavii tures carefully chosen cross references to related entries as well as a bibliography of print and internet sources as suggested additional readings. the four volumes contain over 300 black and white maps and photographs illustrating the text, and each volume contains color inserts portraying the beauty and scope of russian peoples, art, and architecture, as well as important military and political pictorials. entries are arranged alphabetically, and the first volume includes a topical outline that organizes articles by broad categories, thereby offering teachers and students alike an informed map of russian history. a comprehensive subject index offers yet another entry point for the set, encouraging readers to explore the four volumes in greater depth. the encyclopedia is the product of recent scholarship. russian studies began as a significant field of study in the united states and europe only during the soviet era. although a small number of scholars were active before world war ii, particularly in england, the field began to grow in the united states with the onset of the cold war in the late 1940s. when the soviet union launched the first earth satellite, sputnik, in 1957, a concern for national security became a driving force for development of russian area studies. all fields grew especially rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, for it was recognized that study of the contemporary soviet social system would require in-depth knowledge of the language, history, and culture of russia. in the united states, for example, both the federal government and private foundations such as the ford foundation and the carnegie endowment funded graduate russian studies on an almost “crash” basis. whereas the russian institute of columbia university and the russian research center at harvard dominated the field initially, by the end of the 1960s all major research institutions had russian studies programs and were producing new ph.d.s in the field. in fact, most of the scholars who have ever received ph.d.s in the various fields of russian history, social science, arts, and so forth, are still active scholars. the field of russian-soviet studies now has better coverage and higher quality than ever. the 1991 collapse of the soviet union ended the ideological constraints that communism had placed on scholarly publication, allowing scholarship to blossom in post-soviet russia as well. researchers now have unprecedented access to archival and other historical materials-and to the russian people as well. the editors and i have been fortunate, therefore, to be able to select as our contributors-the most outstanding scholars not only in the united states, but also in britain, europe, and russia. twenty years ago it would not have been possible to produce such a balanced, high quality, and comprehensive encyclopedia. the last five decades or so of intensive scholarship have greatly increased our knowledge and understanding of russian history. as one views the length and breadth of the russian historical experience certain continuities and recurring patterns stand out. autocracy, for example, has ancient and strong roots in russian history. for most of its history, russia was led by all-powerful tsars, such as peter the great or nicholas i, who served willingly as autocrats, seemingly conscious of the difficulties inherent in ruling so large and diverse a country. even those tsars who sought to modify the autocracy, such as alexander ii, who emancipated the serfs, reversed course when confronted with revolutionary or nihilist opponents. soviet communism lapsed into autocracy under josef stalin, who was perhaps the most complete autocrat since peter the great. more recently, russian president, vladimir putin, appears to be tolerating a drift back toward autocracy in reaction to the democratic impulses of mikhail gorbachev and boris yeltsin. he seems to relish comparison of his rule to that of peter the great. with the exception of the years under soviet communism, orthodoxy has been autocracy’s twin. historically, the russian orthodox church has successfully resisted attempts to separate church and state and has offered support and justification for autocracy in return. consequently, the church and state have not welcomed religious diversity or promoted tolerance. judaism, catholicism, and other christian denominations, islam, and other religious faiths have suffered persecution and restrictions over the years. the soviet era differed only in than all religions were persecuted in the name of official atheism. the long-term trend has apparently reasserted itself as the growing strength of the russian orthodox church in the post-soviet years has featured renewed attempts to exclude religious competition. territorial expansion has characterized the development of russia from the earliest days, usually through warfare and hostile partitions. the great northern war brought russia to the baltic coast, while the wars of the nineteenth century expanded russia’s power into central asia. expanviii sion under the tsars included annexing territories occupied by settled peoples, as in ukraine, poland, and finland, and also by nomadic tribes, as in central asia, and the caucuses. the outcome of world war ii extended moscow’s reach into eastern europe, and during the cold war russia supported regimes in afghanistan, cuba, and insurgent movements in central america and africa. the process of empire-building brought more than 120 ethnic and national groups under russian rule. it was a costly exercise requiring a large standing army. russification versus promoting local languages and cultures in these territories was a recurring issue under tsars and commissars alike, and it remains an issue today in the russian federation. the collapse first of the soviet empire in east-central europe in 1988-1989 and then of the ussr itself in 1991 caused an equivalent contraction in moscow’s power and undermined the economy as well. consequently, although russia’s leaders have sought to maintain and even increase influence in what only russians call the “near abroad,” that is the former republics of the ussr, the empire has shrunk to its smallest extent since the eighteenth century, and the russia federation’s influence in its former republics, not to mention eastern and central europe, has been severely constrained by a lack of funds as well as by local nationalist feelings. successful modernization of europe has been viewed by russians as either a possible model for russia’s development or as a threat to her distinctive, peculiar social, political and economic institutions. from russia’s vantagepoint on the periphery of europe, to modernize has meant to westernize, with all the political and economic baggage that that implies. periodically, russia’s leaders have opened the “door” to europe, as peter the great put it, only to have it closed or restricted by those who have sought to maintain and foster russia’s unique civilization and its messianic mission in world history. in one form or another there has been a recurring struggle since the time of peter the great between the slavophiles and the westernizers, and this was even true during the soviet era. lenin and trotsky and the old bolsheviks thought they were opening russia to a global communist system. stalin closed it tightly and created an autarkic economy. nikita khrushchev, gorbachev, and yeltsin opened russia once again to the west, ultimately with catastrophic consequences for the empire. it has been difficult, however, to overcome the pull of the “russian idea,” and post-soviet development policies have been undercut by an ambiguous commitment to democratization and marketiza-tion. these issues, autocracy, orthodoxy, territorial expansionism, modernization, and cultural uniqueness, have appeared, disappeared, and reappeared throughout russian history. western and russian historians have argued at length about the strength, significance, and permanence of these themes, and the articles contained in this encyclopedia explore these issues as impartially and objectively as possible. there is no question, however, about the unique, unparalleled contributions of russian culture to art, music, literature, philosophy, and science. where would we be without glinka, mussorgsky, tchaikovsky, pushkin, gogol, dostoyevsky, tolstoy, chekhov, rublev, mendeleyev, sakharov and the many, many other artists, thinkers, and scientists that russia’s citizens of all nationalities have produced? the editors and i hope that the reader will use this encyclopedia to sample the richness of russian history and be induced to explore russian culture in depth. structure and organization of the encyclopedia project when macmillan reference usa approached me seeking an editor in chief for a projected encyclopedia of russian history, i realized that if i could persuade the best scholars in the field to serve as associate editors and on an editorial board, and if we could persuade other top scholars to write entries, the experience would be educational and highly worthwhile. i also realized that it would necessarily be a “labor of love” for all involved. participating scholars would have to believe in the intrinsic value of the project. i first approached dr. ann robertson, who was serving as managing editor of my journal, problems of post-communism, to see whether she would be willing to contribute her outstanding editorial skills as well as her expertise in political science to work closely with me as senior associate editor on the encyclopedia. next i approached professor nicholas riasanovsky of university of california at berkeley. as the leading historian of russia and director of innumerable ph.d. dissertations in the field, professor riasanovsky represented the keystone in the construction of the editorial committee. i knew that his name would assure other scholars of the serious academic nature of the project. i was soon able to recruit an ix awesome set of associate editors: daniel kaiser of grinnell college, louise mcreynolds of the university of hawaii at manoa, donald raleigh of the university of north carolina, and ronald suny of the university of chicago. with their assistance we recruited an equally outstanding advisory board. below are very brief biographies of the distinguished members on the editorial board: editor in chief james r. millar (ph.d. cornell university) is professor of economics and international affairs at the institute for european, russian and eurasian studies at the george washington university. his primary areas of research are soviet/russian economic history and economics of the transition. daniel h. kaiser (ph.d. university of chicago) is professor of history at grinnell college in iowa. his academic specialty is history and family life in early modern russia. louise mcreynolds (ph.d. university of chicago) is professor of history at the university of hawaii. she specializes in russian intellectual history and cultural studies. donald j. raleigh (ph.d. indiana university) is professor of history at the university of north carolina, chapel hill. his research specialization is twentieth-century russian and soviet history and the russian civil war. nicholas v. riasanovsky (d.phil. oxford university) is professor emeritus of history at the university of california at berkeley. he is the author of a history of russia (new york: oxford university press, 1963, sixth edition, 1999). ann e. robertson (ph.d. george washington university) is managing editor of the journal problems of post-communism, national council for eurasian and east european research. she specializes in post-soviet political science. ronald grigor suny (ph.d. columbia university, 1968) is professor of political science at the university of chicago. his research specialty is comparative politics and russian history with special attention to non-russian peoples. the editorial board assembled at george washington university in january 2001 to plan the encyclopedia. the topics we identified eventually totaled 1,500 entries. we decided to create basic article categories in an attempt to capture the range and scope of over 1,000 years of russian history and culture. as a result, articles in the encyclopedia describe: historical events documents, declarations, or treaties military campaigns or battles the arts, literature, philosophy, or science economic developments or strategies ethnic groups geographical regions political or territorial units (cities, regions, government ministries) countries prominent in russian history government policies or programs organizations, movements, or political parties influential individuals basic terms or phrases over the next few months members of the editorial board wrote scope statements and identified word lengths (ranging from 250 to 5,000 words) for the articles in their segment of the table of contents. our goal was to produce four volumes and one million words, a quota we easily could have exceeded. after authors were commissioned and assignments completed, each article was read by the appropriate member of the editorial board and by the editor in chief for final approval. macmillan reference staff has edited the entries for clarity, consistency, and style. a number of transliteration systems exist for presenting russian proper names and terms in the english language. as the main audience for the encyclopedia is not expected to be familiar with the russian language, strict adherence to any one system could appear artificial and intimidating. the editors decided to use standard american spelling of well-known proper names as they would appear in the new york times (e.g., boris yeltsin, not boris el’tsin). in all other cases transliterations conform to the conventions established by the u.s. board on geographic names. within this system we made a few exceptions: ligatures, soft signs, and hard signs are omitted; names ending in “-ii,” “-yi,” or “-yy” are shortened to “-y”; and names of tsars and saints have been anglicized, as peter the great and saint basil, not petr and vasily. the editors believe that this modified system for transliteration will be more readable and understandable than the alternatives. dates in russian history can be somewhat confusing because tsarist russia continued to use “old style” (o.s.) dates, based on the julian calendar, up to the 1917 revolution. in 1917 the julian calenx dar was 13 days behind the gregorian, which had been used in europe since 1582. the bolsheviks adopted new style (n.s.) dates. thus, the october 25th revolution was celebrated on november 7th. acknowledgments i want to thank james goldgeier, director of the institute for european, russian and eurasian studies of the george washington university for institutional support and personal encouragement. the staff of the institute, especially vedrana hadzialic and jennifer sieck, have efficiently and cheerfully helped advance this project in many ways. leah markowitz ably served as research assistant in the early phases of the project. jill lectka, director of publishing operations and joe clements, senior editor for macmillan reference usa, and their staff, have simply been superb in providing the managerial, editorial, and promotional support for the creation of the encyclopedia of russian history. they have been tactful but persistent in encouraging the editors and contributors to meet deadlines and make any necessary editorial changes. brian kinsey initiated the project in 2001 and shawn corridor joined the editorial team in the spring of 2003 to supervise final author corrections and entry preparation. we have been fortunate to have such outstanding professionals working with us. james r. millar editor in chief abkhazians b. george hewitt abortion policy sharon a. kowalsky academy of arts rosalind p. blakesley academy of sciences alexander vucinich administration for organized recruitment michael ellman administration, military david r. jones admiralty william craft brumfield adyge seteney shami adzhubei, alexei ivanovich william taubman aeroflot paul r. gregory afghanistan, relations with roger kangas aganbegyan, abel gezevich michael ellman agitprop k. andrea rusnock agrarian party of russia nikolai petrov agrarian reforms robert c. stuart agriculture robert c. stuart aigun, treaty of steven i. levine ajars b. george hewitt akayev, askar akayevich paul j. kubicek akhmatova, anna andreyevna diana senechal akhromeyev, sergei fyodorovich jacob w. kipp akhundov, mirza fath ali gregory twyman list of articles xv list of articles akkerman, convention of bruce w. menning aksakov, ivan sergeyevich abbott gleason aksakov, konstantin sergeyevich abbott gleason alash orda david r. jones alaska johanna granville albanians, caucasian robert h. hewsen alcoholism kate transchel alcohol monopoly patricia herlihy alexander i jean k. berger alexander ii stephen m. norris alexander iii peter waldron alexander mikhailovich martin dimnik alexander yaroslavich martin dimnik alexandra fedorovna nicholas ganson alexandrov, grigory alexandrovich denise j. youngblood alexei i, patriarch nathaniel davis alexei ii, patriarch nikolas k. gvosdev alexei mikhailovich philip longworth alexei nikolayevich nicholas ganson alexei petrovich lindsey hughes alexeyev, mikhail vasilievich oleg r. airapetov aliyev, heidar gerard j. libaridian allied intervention norman e. saul alliluyeva, svetlana iosifovna johanna granville altai victor l. mote altyn roman k. kovalev amalrik, andrei alexeyevich peter rollberg american relief administration william benton whisenhunt anarchism carl a. linden andrei alexandrovich martin dimnik andrei yaroslavich martin dimnik andrei yurevich martin dimnik andreyev, leonid nikolayevich peter rollberg andreyeva, nina alexandrovna jonathan harris andropov, yuri vladimirovich marc d. zlotnik andrusovo, peace of w. m. reger iv anna ivanovna zhand p. shakibi anthony khrapovitsky, metropolitan robert l. nichols anthony vadkovsky, metropolitan robert l. nichols anti-ballistic missile treaty raymond l. garthoff anti-comintern pact harold j. goldberg anti-party group william taubman antonov uprising a. delano dugarm appanage era elvira m. wilbur xvi list of articles apparat james r. millar april theses rex a. wade architecture william craft brumfield archives patricia kennedy grimsted armand, inessa elizabeth a. wood armenia and armenians george a. bournoutian armenian apostolic church paul crego armory lindsey hughes arms control walter c. clemens jr. artek jonathan d. wallace article 6 of 1977 constitution gordon b. smith assembly of the land richard hellie assortment plans susan j. linz astrakhan, khanate of roman k. kovalev atomic energy paul r. josephson august 1991 putsch ann e. robertson austerlitz, battle of frederick w. kagan austria, relations with hugh lecaine agnew autocracy zhand p. shakibi avars paul crego aviation albert l. weeks avvakum petrovich cathy j. potter azerbaijan and azeris gregory twyman babel, isaac emmanuyelovich milton ehre babi bunty brian kassof baikal-amur magistral railway christopher j. ward bakatin, vadim viktorovich jacob w. kipp bakhtin, mikhail mikhailovich gary saul morson baku audrey altstadt bakunin, mikhail alexandrovich albert l. weeks balaklava, battle of andrew lambert balalaika serge rogosin balkan wars richard frucht balkars paul crego ballet tim scholl baltic fleet johanna granville banking system, soviet pekka sutela banking system, tsarist martin c. spechler banya roman k. kovalev barannikov, viktor pavlovich jacob w. kipp barone, enrico richard e. ericson barshchina elvira m. wilbur barsov, alexander alexandrovich michael ellman baryatinsky, alexander ivanovich ronald grigor suny xvii list of articles bashkortostan and bashkirs daniel e. schafer basil i mikhail m. krom basil ii mikhail m. krom basil iii mikhail m. krom basmachis daniel e. schafer batu donald ostrowski bauer, yevgeny frantsevich joan neuberger bazarov, vladimir alexandrovich vincent barnett beard tax brian boeck bednyaki martin c. spechler belarus and belarusians david m. goldfrank belinsky, vissarion grigorievich peter rollberg belovezh accords paul j. kubicek bely, andrei diana senechal berdyayev, nikolai alexandrovich bernice glatzer rosenthal beria, lavrenti pavlovichv amy knight bering, vitus jonassen ilya vinkovetsky berlin blockade thomas parrish berlin, congress of david m. goldfrank berlin, convention of nikolas gvosdev beschestie nancy shields kollmann bessarabia john gledhill bestuzhev-ryumin, alexei petrovich john t. alexander birchbark charters simon franklin birobidzhan robert weinberg biron, ernst johann john t. alexander black earth victor l. mote black hundred jack langer black market julie hessler black repartition a. delano dugarm black sea fleet michael parrish blat martin c. spechler bloch, jan jacob w. kipp blok, alexander alexandrovich diana senechal bloody sunday walter sablinsky bobrikov, nikolai ivanovich tuomo polvinen bolotnikov, ivan isayevich chester dunning bolshevism robert c. williams bolshoi theater tim scholl bonner, yelena georgievna lisa a. kirschenbaum book of degrees gail lenhoff boretskaya, marfa ivanovna gail lenhoff borodino, battle of frederick w. kagan borotbisty serhy yekelchyk xviii list of articles boyar sergei bogatyrev boyar duma sergei bogatyrev brazauskas, algirdas alfred erich senn brest-litovsk peace sally a. boniece brezhnev doctrine kieran williams brezhnev, leonid ilich richard d. anderson jr. brodsky, joseph alexandrovich maria eitinguina bruce, james david johanna granville brusilov, alexei alexeyevich bruce w. menning bryusov, valery yakovlevich mark konecny bucharest, treaty of radu r. florescu budenny, semeon mikhailovich jonathan d. smele bukhara seymour becker bukharin, nikolai ivanovich carol gayle william moskoff bukovina john gledhill bulgakov, mikhail afanasievich diana senechal bulgakov, sergei nikolayevich catherine evtuhov bulganin, nikolai alexandrovich roger d. markwick bulgarians johanna granville bulgaria, relations with kyril drezov bund, jewish john d. klier bunin, ivan alexeyevich milton ehre bureaucracy, economic paul r. gregory buryats johanna granville butashevich-petrashevsky, mikhail vasilievich dmitri glinski bylina norman w. ingham byzantium, influence of simon franklin cabaret johanna granville cabinet of ministers, imperial john m. thompson cabinet of ministers, soviet gerald m. easter cadres policy christopher williams calendar ann e. robertson cantonists john d. klier capitalism thomas c. owen carpatho-rusyns paul robert magocsi cathedral of christ the savior nicholas ganson cathedral of st. basil lindsey hughes cathedral of st. sophia, kiev william craft brumfield cathedral of st. sophia, novgorod william craft brumfield cathedral of the archangel lindsey hughes cathedral of the dormition lindsey hughes catherine i lindsey hughes catherine ii john t. alexander catholicism gregory l. freeze xix list of articles caucasian wars robert f. baumann caucasus paul crego caves monastery david k. prestel caviar victor l. mote censorship charles a. ruud central asia roger kangas central bank of russia juliet johnson central committee johanna granville central control commission nick baron central statistical agency steven rosefielde chaadayev, peter yakovlevich raymond t. mcnally chagall, marc mark konecny chancellery system peter b. brown chapayev, vasily ivanovich denise j. youngblood chapbook literature e. anthony swift charskaya, lydia alexeyevna elizabeth jones hemenway charter of the cities george e. munro charter of the nobility nickolas lupinin chastushka roman k. kovalev chayanov, alexander vasilievich stephan merl chebrikov, viktor mikhailovich amy knight chechnya and chechens johanna nichols chekhov, anton pavlovich andrew r. durkin cherkess seteney shami chernenko, konstantin ustinovich marc d. zlotnik chernobyl david r. marples chernomyrdin, viktor stepanovich peter reddaway chernov, viktor mikhailovich sarah badcock chernuhka eliot borenstein chernyshev, alexander ivanovich frederick w. kagan chernyshevsky, nikolai gavrilovich victoria khiterer chervonets juliet johnson chesme, battle of john c. k. daly chicherin, georgy vasilievich teddy j. uldricks china, relations with steven i. levine chirikov, alexei ilich john mccannon chkalov, valery pavlovich john mccannon chkheidze, nikolai semenovich stephen jones christianization donald ostrowski chronicle of current events marshall s. shatz chronicle of human rights in the ussr marshall s. shatz chronicles gail lenhoff chubais, anatoly borisovich stefan hedlund chuikov, vasily ivanovich david m. glantz xx list of articles chukchi gail a. fondahl chukovskaya, lydia korneyevna jacqueline m. olich chukovsky, kornei ivanovich elizabeth jones hemenway church council george t. kosar church council, hundred chapters debra a. coulter chuvash daniel e. schafer cimmerians roman k. kovalev circus r?sa magn?sd?ttir civic union michael ellman civil war of 1425-1450 richard hellie civil war of 1917-1922 donald j. raleigh class system lewis h. siegelbaum climate victor l. mote cold war mark kramer collective farm robert c. stuart collective responsibility brian boeck collectivization of agriculture robert c. stuart colonial expansion richard hellie colonialism daniel brower command administrative economy richard e. ericson iii commanding heights of the economy martin c. spechler commissar sharon a. kowalsky committee for the operational management of the national economy peter rutland committee of soldiers’ mothers jacob w. kipp committees of the village poor a. delano dugarm commonwealth of independent states paul j. kubicek communism john m. thompson communist academy david brandenberger communist bloc yaroslav bilinsky communist information bureau gale stokes communist international william j. chase communist party of the russian federation luke march communist party of the soviet union graeme gill communist youth organizations anne e. gorsuch congress of people’s deputies thomas f. remington congress of russian communities nikolai petrov consistory vera shevzov constituent assembly michael melancon constitutional court gordon b. smith constitutional democratic party melissa k. stockdale constitution of 1918 albert l. weeks constitution of 1936 karen petrone constitution of 1977 peter b. maggs constitution of 1993 gordon b. smith xxi list of articles constructivism hugh d. hudson jr. control figures martin c. spechler conventional forces in europe treaty johanna granville cooperatives, law on carol gayle william moskoff cooperative societies william moskoff carol gayle copper riots jarmo t. kotilaine corporal punishment boris n. mironov corporation, russian thomas c. owen cosmopolitanism karl d. qualls cossacks bruce w. menning council for mutual economic assistance daniel r. kazmer council of ministers, soviet derek watson counterreforms daniel orlovsky country estates priscilla roosevelt court, high arbitration peter b. maggs court, supreme peter b. maggs crimea taras kuzio crimean khanate alan fisher crimean tatars alan fisher crimean war david m. goldfrank crony capitalism stefan hedlund cuban missile crisis hugh phillips cuba, relations with cole blasier cult of personality karen petrone cultural revolution sheila fitzpatrick benjamin zajicek custine, astolphe louis leonor peter rollberg customs books jarmo t. kotilaine cyril and methodius society serhy yekelchyk cyrillic alphabet ann e. robertson cyril of turov norman w. ingham czartoryski, adam jerzy johanna granville czechoslovakia, invasion of kieran williams czechoslovakia, relations with ann e. robertson dagestan paul crego daniel, metropolitan david m. goldfrank daniel, yuli markovich john mccannon danilevsky, nikolai yakovlevich albert l. weeks dargins paul crego dashkova, yekaterina romanovna michelle lamarche marrese dashnaktsutiun gerard j. libaridian decembrist movement and rebellion elena zemskova decree on land stephen k. wegren dedovshchina jonathan weiler xxii list of articles defectors, soviet era amy knight democratic party nikolai petrov democratic russia nikolai petrov democratic union nikolai petrov democratization dmitri glinski demography cynthia j. buckley denga roman k. kovalev denikin, anton ivanovich anatol shmelev denmark, relations with jarmo t. kotilaine deportations eric lohr derzhavin, gavryl romanovich johanna granville de-stalinization graeme gill d?tente marie-pierre rey developed socialism vladimir e. shlapentokh dezhnev, semen ivanovich john mccannon diagilev, sergei pavlovich tim scholl dialectical materialism alfred b. evans jr. dictatorship of the proletariat ray taras diocese cathy j. potter dionisy a. dean mckenzie disenfranchized persons golfo alexopoulos dissident movement yaroslav bilinsky dmitry alexandrovich martin dimnik dmitry, false chester dunning dmitry mikhailovich martin dimnik dmitry of uglich brian boeck doctors’ plot david brandenberger dolgans johanna granville domostroi carolyn johnston pouncy donation books ludwig steindorff donskoy, dmitry ivanovich gail lenhoff dostoyevsky, fyodor mikhailovich peter rollberg dudayev, dzhokhar dmitri glinski dugin, alexander gelevich jacob w. kipp duma john m. thompson dunayevsky, isaak osipovich richard stites dungan johanna granville durova, nadezhda andreyevna mary zirin dvoeverie stella rock dvorianstvo richard hellie dyachenko, tatiana borisovna peter reddaway dyak peter b. brown dzerzhinsky, felix edmundovich robert e. blobaum economic growth, extensive martin c. spechler xxiii list of articles economic growth, imperial paul r. gregory economic growth, intensive steven rosefielde economic growth, soviet gur ofer economic reform commission michael ellman economism martin c. spechler economy, post-soviet paul r. gregory economy, tsarist carol gayle william moskoff edinonachalie susan j. linz education brian kassof ehrenburg, ilya grigorovich john patrick farrell eisenstein, sergei mikhailovich joan neuberger electoral commission nikolai petrov electricity grid peter rutland elizabeth john t. alexander emancipation act julia ulyannikova empire, ussr as zhand p. shakibi engels, friedrich alfred b. evans jr. enlightenment, impact of olga tsapina enserfment richard hellie enterprise, soviet susan j. linz environmentalism rachel may episcopate zoe knox estonia and estonians art leete ethiopian civil war johanna granville ethnography, russian and soviet nathaniel knight evenki gail a. fondahl faberg?, peter carl louise mcreynolds family code of 1926 wendy goldman family code on marriage, the family, and guardianship wendy goldman family edict of 1944 rebecca balmas neary family laws of 1936 wendy goldman famine of 1891-1892 richard g. robbins jr. famine of 1921-1922 mark b. tauger famine of 1932-1933 mark b. tauger famine of 1946 nicholas ganson far eastern region gilbert rozman fatherland-all russia nikolai petrov feast books ludwig steindorff february revolution rex a. wade federal assembly thomas f. remington federalism roger kangas federal property fund james r. millar federation treaties edward w. walker feldman, grigory alexandrovich martin c. spechler xxiv list of articles feldsher samuel c. ramer fellow travelers karl e. loewenstein feminism linda edmondson ferghana valley michael rouland feudalism richard hellie filaret drozdov, metropolitan robert nichols filaret romanov, patriarch russell e. martin finland paul j. kubicek finns and karelians rein taagepera firebird norman w. ingham five-hundred-day plan robert w. campbell five-year plans holland hunter florence, council of george p. majeska folklore patricia arant folk music susannah lockwood smith fondoderzhateli paul r. gregory fonvizin, denis ivanovich johanna granville food darra goldstein foreign debt stefan hedlund foreign trade martin c. spechler france, relations with marie-pierre rey free economic society carol gayle william moskoff freemasonry olga tsapina french influence in russia martine mespoulet french war of 1812 frederick w. kagan frontier fortifications brian davies frunze, mikhail vasilievich michael parrish full economic accounting susan j. linz fundamental laws of 1906 oleg budnitskii funded commodities james r. millar futurism hugh d. hudson jr. fyodor alexeyevich lindsey hughes fyodor ii chester dunning fyodor ivanovich johanna granville fyodorov, boris grigorievich peter rutland fyodorov, ivan hugh m. olmsted gagarin, yuri alexeyevich phyllis conn gagauz mikhail guboglo gaidar, yegor timurovich peter rutland gamsakhurdia, zviad stephen jones gapon, georgy apollonovich walter sablinsky gaspirali, ismail bey edward j. lazzerini gatchina william craft brumfield general secretary norma c. noonan xxv list of articles geneticists james r. millar geneva summit of 1985 raymond l. garthoff genoa conference teddy j. uldricks genocide gerard j. libaridian geography victor l. mote georgia and georgians paul crego georgian orthodox church paul crego german democratic republic melissa r. jordine german settlers kevin alan brook germany, relations with melissa r. jordine gigantomania victoria khiterer ginzburg, evgenia semenovna alison rowley gkos pekka sutela glasnost carl a. linden glavki martin c. spechler glavlit brian kassof glinka, mikhail ivanovich matthias stadelmann glinskaya, yelena vasilyevna isolde thyr?t gnezdovo heidi m. sherman godunov, boris fyodorovich chester dunning gogol, nikolai vasilievich diana senechal golden age of russian literature michael a. denner golden horde donald ostrowski gold standard juliet johnson golitsyn, vasily vasilievich lindsey hughes goncharova, natalia sergeyevna jane a. sharp goncharov, ivan alexandrovich catherine o’neil goods famine robert c. stuart gorbachev, mikhail sergeyevich archie brown gorbachev, raisa maximovna archie brown gorchakov, alexander mikhailovich norman e. saul gordon, patrick leopold jarmo t. kotilaine goremykin, ivan longinovich john m. thompson gorky, maxim tovah yedlin gosbank juliet johnson gosizdat brian kassof goskomstat martine mespoulet gosplan paul r. gregory gosti samuel h. baron gostinaya sotnya jarmo t. kotilaine gosudaryev dvor sergei bogatyrev governing senate zhand p. shakibi grain crisis of 1928 carol gayle william moskoff grain trade boris n. mironov xxvi list of articles grand alliance david m. glantz grand prince janet martin great britain, relations with johanna granville great northern war paul a. bushkovitch great reforms daniel field greece, relations with johanna granville greeks patricia herlihy green movement a. delano dugarm griboedov, alexander sergeyevich johanna granville grigorenko, peter grigorievich jonathan weiler grishin, viktor vasilievich terry d. clark grivna roman k. kovalev gromov, boris vsevolodovich jacob w. kipp gromyko, andrei andreyevich graeme gill grossman, vasily semenovich karl e. loewenstein guards, regiments of frederick w. kagan guba administrative system brian davies guberniya nick baron guilds thomas c. owen gulag david j. nordlander gum julie hessler gumilev, lev nikolayevich jacob w. kipp gumilev, nikolai stepanovich brian kassof gypsy darrell slider gypsymania richard stites hagiography gail lenhoff hague peace conferences walter c. clemens jr. hanseatic league lawrence n. langer hard budget constraints susan j. linz hayek, friedrich richard e. ericson health care services, imperial samuel c. ramer health care services, soviet mark g. field hegel, georg wilhelm friedrich albert l. weeks helsinki accords christopher j. ward herzen, alexander ivanovich dmitri glinski higher party school peter rutland hilarion, metropolitan david k. prestel his majesty’s own chancery zhand p. shakibi historical songs norman w. ingham historiography oleg budnitskii holy alliance david wetzel holy synod debra a. coulter homeless children jacqueline m. olich hrushevsky, mikhail sergeyevich serhy yekelchyk xxvii list of articles human rights peter juviler hungarian revolution johanna granville hungary, relations with johanna granville huns roman k. kovalev icons gregory l. freeze idealism boris gubman igor martin dimnik ilminsky, nikolai ivanovich isabelle kreindler immigration and emigration eric lohr imperial russian geographical society victor l. mote imperial russian technological society martine mespoulet index number relativity gur ofer indicative planning martin c. spechler industrialization robert c. stuart industrialization, rapid gur ofer industrialization, soviet paul r. gregory inorodtsy john d. klier input-output analysis steven rosefielde institute of red professors david brandenberger instruction, legislative commission of catherine ii michelle denbeste intelligentsia victoria khiterer intermediate range nuclear forces treaty walter c. clemens jr. international space station john m. logsdon inter-regional deputies’ group peter reddaway iran, relations with robert o. freedman iraq, relations with robert o. freedman iron curtain karl d. qualls islam adeeb khalid israel, relations with robert o. freedman italy, relations with j. calvitt clarke iii ivan i martin dimnik ivan ii martin dimnik ivan iii mikhail m. krom ivan iv sergei bogatyrev ivan v paul a. bushkovitch ivan vi lindsey hughes ivashko, vladimir antonovich david r. marples izba richard hellie izvestiya matthew e. lenoe izyaslav i martin dimnik izyaslav mstislavich martin dimnik jackson-vanik agreement robert o. freedman jadidism edward j. lazzerini japan, relations with charles e. ziegler xxviii list of articles jassy, treaty of bruce w. menning jews john d. klier joakim, patriarch cathy j. potter job, patriarch debra a. coulter joseph of volotsk, st. david m. goldfrank journalism charles a. ruud judaizers david m. goldfrank july days of 1917 michael c. hickey kabardians seteney shami kaganovich, lazar moyseyevich kate transchel kal 007 timothy thomas kaliningrad richard j. krickus kalinin, mikhail ivanovich kate transchel kalmyks johanna granville kamenev, lev borisovich michael c. hickey kandinsky, vassily vassilyvich mark konecny kantorovich, leonid vitaliyevich martin c. spechler kaplan, fanya sally a. boniece karachai brian boeck karakalpaks paul j. kubicek karakhan declaration teddy j. uldricks karamzin, nikolai mikhailovich andreas sch?nle kasyanov, mikhail mikhailovich peter rutland katkov, mikhail nikiforovich victoria khiterer katyn forest massacre albert l. weeks kaufman, konstantin petrovich daniel brower kazakhstan and kazakhs david r. jones kazan donald ostrowski kellogg-briand pact teddy j. uldricks kerensky, alexander fyodorovich rex a. wade khabarov, yerofei pavlovich john mccannon khakass johanna granville khalkin-gol, battle of mary r. habeck khanty art leete khasbulatov, ruslan imranovich ann e. robertson khazars roman k. kovalev khiva daniel brower khmelnitsky, bohdan frank e. sysyn khomyakov, alexei stepanovich abbott gleason khovanshchina lindsey hughes khozraschet susan j. linz khrushchev, nikita sergeyevich william taubman khutor william moskoff carol gayle kievan caves patericon david k. prestel xxix list of articles kievan rus janet martin kireyevsky, ivan vasilievich abbott gleason kirill-beloozero monastery robert romanchuk kiriyenko, sergei vladilenovich hugh phillips kirov, sergei mironovich paul m. hagenloh klyuchevsky, vasily osipovich boris n. mironov kokoshin, andrei afanasievich jacob w. kipp kolchak, alexander vasilievich n. g. o. pereira kollontai, alexandra mikhailovna barbara evans clements komi rein taagepera komuch victor m. fic kondratiev, nikolai dmitrievich vincent barnett konev, ivan stepanovich michael parrish konstantin nikolayevich larissa zakharova kopeck jarmo t. kotilaine koreans andrei lankov korean war kathryn weathersby korea, relations with andrei lankov korenizatsya robert maier kormchaya kniga martin dimnik kormlenie stefan hedlund kornai, janos martin c. spechler kornilov affair rex a. wade korolenko, vladimir galaktionovich johanna granville korsh theater louise mcreynolds koryaks johanna granville korzhakov, alexander vasilievich peter reddaway kosmodemyanskaya, zoya rosalinde sartorti kosygin, alexei nikolayevich graeme gill kosygin reforms martin c. spechler kotoshikhin, grigory karpovich benjamin uroff kovalev, sergei adamovich peter reddaway kovalevskaya, sofia vasilievna mary zirin kozlov, frol romanovich william taubman kozyrev, andrei vladimirovich paul j. kubicek krasnov, pyotr nikolayevich jonathan d. smele kravchuk, leonid makarovich robert s. kravchuk kremlin william craft brumfield kremlinology anthony d’agostino kritzman, lev natanovich nick baron kronstadt uprising a. delano dugarm kropotkin, pyotr alexeyevich john slatter krupskaya, nadezhda konstantinovna elizabeth a. wood krylov, ivan andreyevich louise mcreynolds xxx list of articles kryuchkov, vladimir alexandrovich amy knight kuchuk kainarji, treaty of norman e. saul kulaks stephan merl kuleshov, lev vladimirovich denise j. youngblood kulikovo field, battle of donald ostrowski kulturnost julia obertreis kunayev, dinmukhammed akhmedovich david r. jones kurbsky, andrei mikhailovich sergei bogatyrev kurds johanna granville kuril islands charles e. ziegler kuritsyn, fyodor vasilevich david m. goldfrank kuropatkin, alexei nikolayevich david schimmelpenninck van der oye kursk, battle of david m. glantz kursk submarine disaster jacob w. kipp kustar e. anthony swift kutuzov, mikhail ilarionovich frederick w. kagan kuybyshev, valerian vladimirovich kate transchel kuznetsov, nikolai gerasimovich michael parrish kyrgyzstan and kyrgyz roger kangas labor david pretty labor books robert c. stuart labor day robert c. stuart labor theory of value alfred b. evans jr. lake baikal rachel may land and freedom party christopher williams land captain oleg budnitskii landsbergis, vytautas alfred erich senn land tenure, imperial era michelle lamarche marrese land tenure, soviet and post-soviet stephen k. wegren language laws vladislava reznik latvia and latvians andrejs plakans law code of 1649 richard hellie lay of igor’s campaign norman w. ingham lazarev institute george a. bournoutian league of armed neutrality norman e. saul league of nations teddy j. uldricks league of the militant godless daniel peris lebed, alexander ivanovich jacob w. kipp lefortovo georg wurzer left opposition kate transchel left socialist revolutionaries michael melancon legal systems michael newcity legislative commission of 1767-1768 janet hartley leichoudes, ioannikios and sophronios nikolaos a. chrissidis xxxi list of articles leipzig, battle of oleg budnitskii lena goldfields massacre michael melancon lend lease mikhail suprun leningrad affair richard bidlack leningrad, siege of richard bidlack lenin’s testament christopher williams lenin’s tomb karen petrone lenin, vladimir ilich christopher read leontiev, konstantin nikolayevich alfred b. evans jr. lermontov, mikhail yurievich zhand p. shakibi leskov, nikolai semenovich peter rollberg lesnaya, battle of paul a. bushkovitch lezgins paul crego liberal democratic party nikolai petrov liberalism hugh phillips liberman, yevsei grigorevich robert w. campbell ligachev, yegor kuzmich jonathan harris likhachev, dmitry sergeyevich john patrick farrell lithuania and lithuanians alfred erich senn litvinov, maxim maximovich hugh phillips living church movement edward e. roslof livonian war mikhail m. krom lobachevsky, nikolai ivanovich alexander vucinich local government and administration igor yeykelis lomonosov, mikhail vasilievich alexander vucinich loris-melikov, mikhail tarielovich oleg budnitskii lotman, yuri mikhailovich johanna granville lovers of wisdom, the victoria frede lubok gary thurston lubyanka georg wurzer lukashenko, alexander grigorievich david r. marples lukyanov, anatoly ivanovich ann e. robertson lunacharsky, anatoly vasilievich sheila fitzpatrick luzhkov, yuri mikhailovich terry d. clark lysenko, trofim denisovich r?sa magn?sd?ttir machine tractor stations robert c. stuart mafia capitalism stefan hedlund main political directorate ann e. robertson makarov, stepan osipovich jacob w. kipp makary, metropolitan donald ostrowski makhno, nestor ivanovich jonathan d. smele malenkov, georgy maximilyanovich david r. marples malevich, kazimir severinovich hugh d. hudson jr. malta summit raymond l. garthoff xxxii list of articles mandelshtam, nadezhda yakovlevna judith e. kalb mandelshtam, osip emilievich judith e. kalb manifesto of 1763 john t. alexander mansi rein taagepera mari el and the mari seppo lallukka market socialism richard ericson marriage and family life william g. wagner martov, yuli osipovich nick baron marxism alfred b. evans jr. maslenitsa roman k. kovalev material balances susan j. linz material product system misha v. belkindas matryoshka dolls priscilla roosevelt matveyev, artamon sergeyevich martha luby lahana maxim the greek, st. hugh m. olmsted mayakovsky, vladimir vladimirovich mark konecny mazepa, hetman ivan stepanovich lindsey hughes medvedev, roy alexandrovich roger d. markwick medvedev, sylvester agafonikovich nikolaos a. chrissidis medvedev, zhores alexandrovich r?sa magn?sd?ttir melnikov, konstantin stepanovich hugh d. hudson jr. memorial peter reddaway mendeleyev, dmitry ivanovich alexander vucinich mensheviks alice k. pate menshikov, alexander danilovich lindsey hughes mercantilism martin c. spechler merchants thomas c. owen meskhetian turks justin odum mestnichestvo nancy shields kollmann metropolitan donald ostrowski meyerhold, vsevolod yemilievich sharon marie carnicke mighty handful matthias stadelmann migration cynthia j. buckley mikhailovsky, nikolai konstantinovich dmitri glinski mikhalkov, nikita sergeyevich joan neuberger mikoyan, anastas ivanovich roger d. markwick military art bruce w. menning military doctrine bruce w. menning military-economic planning mark harrison military, imperial era bruce w. menning military-industrial complex steven rosefielde military intelligence david schimmelpenninck van der oye military reforms john w. steinberg military, soviet and post-soviet roger r. reese xxxiii list of articles milyukov, paul nikolayevich oleg budnitskii milyutin, dmitry alexeyevich larissa zakharova milyutin, nikolai alexeyevich daniel field mingrelians b. george hewitt minin, kuzma maureen perrie ministries, economic paul r. gregory ministry of foreign trade james r. millar ministry of internal affairs mark galeotti mir stephan merl mir space station john m. logsdon mniszech, marina chester dunning moiseyev, mikhail alexeyevich jacob w. kipp moldova and moldovans william crowther molotov, vyacheslav mikhailovich derek watson monasticism scott m. kenworthy monetary overhang pekka sutela monetary system, soviet pekka sutela montenegro, relations with john d. treadway mordvins isabelle kreindler morozova, feodosya prokopevna nada boskovska morozov, boris ivanovich richard hellie morozov, pavel trofimovich catriona kelly moscow terry d. clark moscow agricultural society robert e. johnson moscow art theater sharon marie carnicke moscow baroque lindsey hughes moscow, battle of anthony young moscow olympics of 1980 paul r. josephson moskvitin, ivan yurievich john mccannon motion pictures denise j. youngblood movement for democratic reforms jonathan harris movement in support of the army nikolai petrov mstislav martin dimnik muraviev, nikita johanna granville musavat gregory twyman muscovy david m. goldfrank museum, hermitage ann e. robertson music matthias stadelmann myasoedov affair eric lohr nagorno-karabakh gerard j. libaridian nagrodskaya, evdokia apollonovna johanna granville nakhichevan gregory twyman nakhimov, pavel stepanovich john c. k. daly napoleon i marie-pierre rey xxxiv list of articles narimanov, nariman audrey altstadt narva, battles of paul a. bushkovitch naryshkina, natalia kirillovna lindsey hughes national library of russia janice t. pilch nationalism in the arts stephen m. norris nationalism in the soviet union victoria khiterer nationalism in tsarist empire timothy snyder nationalities policies, soviet jeremy smith nationalities policies, tsarist andreas kappeler nation and nationality vera tolz navarino, battle of john c. k. daly nazarbayev, nursultan abishevich david r. jones nazi-soviet pact of 1939 derek watson near abroad christopher williams nechayev, sergei geradievich philip pomper nekrasov, nikolai alexeyevich johanna granville nemchinov, vasily sergeyevich robert w. campbell nemtsov, boris ivanovich hugh phillips nenets gail a. fondahl neoclassicism rosalind p. gray nerchinsk, treaty of jarmo t. kotilaine neronov, ivan cathy j. potter nesselrode, karl robert david m. goldfrank net material product misha v. belkindas new economic policy martin c. spechler new-formation regiments w. m. reger iv new political thinking archie brown newspapers matthew e. lenoe new statute of commerce richard hellie nicaragua, relations with cole blasier nicholas i stephen m. norris nicholas ii peter waldron nihilism and nihilists alfred b. evans jr. nijinsky, vaslav fomichv tim scholl nikitin, afanasy gail lenhoff nikon, patriarch cathy j. potter nil sorsky, st. david m. goldfrank nogai roman k. kovalev nomenklatura albert l. weeks normanist controversy heidi m. sherman north atlantic treaty organization andrew a. michta northern convoys mikhail suprun northern fleet johanna granville northern peoples gail a. fondahl xxxv list of articles norway, relations with jarmo t. kotilaine novgorod, archbishop of lawrence n. langer novgorod judicial charter lawrence n. langer novgorod the great janet martin novikov, nikolai ivanovich johanna granville novocherkassk uprising samuel h. baron novosibirsk report alfred b. evans jr. novosiltsev, nikolai nikolayevich hugh phillips novozhilov, viktor valentinovich robert w. campbell novy mir catharine nepomnyashchy nystadt, treaty of lindsey hughes obrok elvira m. wilbur obruchev, nikolai nikolayevich oleg r. airapetov obshchina steven a. grant occultism maria carlson october 1993 events peter reddaway october general strike of 1905 gerald d. surh october manifesto oleg budnitskii october revolution alexander rabinowitch octobrist party zhand p. shakibi odoyevsky, vladimir fyodorovich johanna granville official nationality cynthia hyla whittaker ogarkov, nikolai vasilevich jacob w. kipp okolnichy sergei bogatyrev okudzhava, bulat shalovich gerald smith old believer committee roy r. robson old believers roy r. robson old style ann e. robertson oleg martin dimnik olga david k. prestel opera albrecht gaub operation barbarossa a. delano dugarm oprichnina sergei bogatyrev ordin-nashchokin, afanasy lavrentievich martha luby lahana ordzhonikidze, grigory konstantinovich nick baron organized crime louise shelley orgburo christopher williams orlova, lyubov petrovna denise j. youngblood orlov, grigory grigorievich john t. alexander orthodoxy edward e. roslof osetins brian boeck osorina, yulianya ustinovna nada boskovska ostromir gospel david k. prestel ostrovsky, alexander nikolayevich gary thurston xxxvi list of articles otrepev, grigory chester dunning our home is russia party nikolai petrov pacific fleet johanna granville paganism david k. prestel pakistan, relations with johanna granville palekh painting k. andrea rusnock pale of settlement diana fisher paleologue, sophia isolde thyr?t pallas, peter-simon alexander vucinich pamyat zoe knox panslavism abbott gleason paris, congress and treaty of 1856 david m. goldfrank paris, first and second treaties of marie-pierre rey party congresses and conferences robert v. daniels party of russian unity and accord nikolai petrov passport system golfo alexopoulos pasternak, boris leonidovich larissa rudova patriarchate paul a. bushkovitch paul i marie-pierre rey pavliuchenko, lyudmila mikhailovna kazimiera j. cottam pavlova, anna matveyevna tim scholl pavlov, ivan petrovich sharon a. kowalsky pavlov, valentin sergeyevich johanna granville peasant economy stephen k. wegren peasantry robert e. johnson peasant uprisings dmitri glinski pechenegs roman k. kovalev peking, treaty of steven i. levine pelevin, viktor olegovich eliot borenstein people’s commissariat of nationalities ronald grigor suny people’s control committee ann e. robertson people’s houses e. anthony swift people’s party of free russia nikolai petrov people’s will, the deborah pearl perestroika archie brown permanent revolution carl a. linden perovskaya, sofia lvovna oleg budnitskii persian gulf war robert o. freedman pestel, pavel ivanovich paul crego peter i lindsey hughes peter ii lindsey hughes peter iii lindsey hughes peter and paul fortress william craft brumfield petrashevtsy kathryn weathersby xxxvii list of articles petrov, grigory spiridonovich jennifer hedda petrushka patricia arant petty tutelage susan j. linz photography erika wolf pimen, patriarch nathaniel davis pirogov, nikolai ivanovich alexander vucinich pisarev, dmitry ivanovich johanna granville planners’ preferences richard ericson platon (levshin) j. eugene clay platonov, sergei fyodorovich oleg budnitskii plehve, vyacheslav konstantinovich edward h. judge plekhanov, georgy valentinovich samuel h. baron plenum julie degraffenried pobedonostsev, konstantin michelle denbeste podgorny, nikolai viktorovich roger d. markwick podyachy peter b. brown podzol victor l. mote pogodin, mikhail petrovich johanna granville pogroms david pretty pokrovsky, mikhail nikolayevich george enteen poland theodore r. weeks polar explorers john mccannon poles johanna granville polish rebellion of 1863 brian porter politburo graeme gill political party system thomas f. remington polotsky, simeon paul a. bushkovitch polovtsy roman k. kovalev poltava, battle of jarmo t. kotilaine polyane roman k. kovalev pomestie richard hellie ponomarev, boris kharitonovich roger d. markwick popov, alexander stepanovich johanna granville popov, gavriil kharitonovich erik s. herron popov, pavel ilich robert w. campbell popular front policy harold j. goldberg populism christopher williams port arthur, siege of bruce w. menning portsmouth, treaty of nikolas gvosdev posadnik lawrence n. langer possessors and non-possessors david m. goldfrank postal system alison rowley potemkin, grigory alexandrovich john t. alexander potemkin mutiny igor yeykelis xxxviii list of articles potsdam conference joseph l. nogee pozharsky, dmitry mikhailovich maureen perrie pravda matthew e. lenoe preobrazhensky guards bruce w. menning preobrazhensky, yevgeny alexeyevich don filtzer presidency erik s. herron presidential council christopher williams presidium of supreme soviet richard hellie primakov, yevgeny maximovich robert v. daniels primary chronicle donald ostrowski primary party organization christopher williams prime minister gerald m. easter primitive socialist accumulation james r. millar prisons georg wurzer prison songs julia ulyannikova privatization marie lavigne procuracy gordon b. smith prodnalog stephen k. wegren prodrazverstka stephen k. wegren production sharing agreement james r. millar prokofiev, sergei sergeyevich matthias stadelmann prokopovich, feofan gregory l. freeze proletkult lynn mally propp, vladimir iakovlevich natalie o. kononenko prostitution laurie bernstein protazanov, yakov alexandrovic denise j. youngblood protestantism paul d. steeves protopopov, alexander dmitrievich nicholas v. riasanovsky provisional government daniel orlovsky prussia, relations with hugh phillips pruth river, campaign and treaty of jean k. berger pskov judicial charter lawrence n. langer public opinion studies steven a. grant pugachev, emelian ivanovich john t. alexander pugo, boris karlovich jacob w. kipp purges, the great gabor t. rittersporn pushkin, alexander sergeyevich diana senechal pushkin house vanessa bittner putin, vladimir vladimirovich dale herspring pytatakov, georgy leonidovich kate transchel quadruple alliance and quintuple alliance hugh phillips rabbinical commission chaeran y. freeze rabkrin nick baron rachmaninov, sergei vasilievich albert l. weeks xxxix list of articles radek, karl bernardovich william j. chase radishchev, alexander nikolayevich w. gareth jones radzinsky, edvard stanislavich jacob w. kipp raikin, arkady isaakovich robert weinberg railways victor l. mote raionirovanie james heinzen rapallo, treaty of harold j. goldberg rasputin, grigory yefimovich joseph t. fuhrmann rastrelli, bartolomeo william craft brumfield ratchet effect susan j. linz razin rebellion james g. hart raznochintsy victoria khiterer redemption payments a. delano dugarm red guards rex a. wade red square william craft brumfield red terror vladimir brovkin referendum of april 1993 nikolai petrov referendum of december 1993 gordon b. smith referendum of march 1991 edward w. walker refuseniks jonathan d. wallace regionalism susan smith-peter reitern, mikhail khristoforovich jacob w. kipp religion gregory l. freeze repin, ilya yefimovich louise mcreynolds repressed inflation steven rosefielde revolution of 1905 abraham ascher reykjavik summit raymond l. garthoff right opposition kate transchel rimsky-korsakov, nikolai andreyevich matthias stadelmann rodzianko, mikhail vladimirovich john m. thompson roerich, nicholas konstantinovich john mccannon romania, relations with radu r. florescu romanova, anastasia isolde thyr?t romanova, anastasia nikolayevna ann e. robertson romanov dynasty russell e. martin romanov, grigory vasilievich ann e. robertson romanov, mikhail fyodorovich russell e. martin romanticism yuri tulupenko rostislav martin dimnik rostovtsev, mikhail ivanovich a. delano dugarm rota system janet martin route to greeks roman k. kovalev ruble jarmo t. kotilaine ruble control pekka sutela xl list of articles rublev, andrei a. dean mckenzie ruble zone juliet johnson rumyantsev, peter alexandrovich lindsey hughes rurik martin dimnik rurikid dynasty janet martin russia-belarus union omer fisher russia company maria salomon arel russian association of proletarian writers brian kassof russian federal securities commission james r. millar russian federation johanna granville russian geographical society victor l. mote russian justice daniel h. kaiser russian national unity party william d. jackson russian orthodox church gregory l. freeze russians nancy ries russian soviet federated socialist republic johanna granville russian state library janice t. pilch russia’s democratic choice nikolai petrov russification theodore r. weeks russo-japanese war john w. steinberg russo-persian wars robert f. baumann russo-turkish wars bruce w. menning rutskoi, alexander vladimirovich jacob w. kipp rybkin, ivan petrovich nikolai petrov rykov, alexei ivanovich derek watson ryleyev, kondraty fyodorovich johanna granville ryutin, martemyan james white ryzhkov, nikolai ivanovich ann e. robertson saints gregory l. freeze sakha and yakuts erin k. crouch sakharov, andrei dmitrievich lisa a. kirschenbaum saltykov-shchedrin, mikhail yevgrafovich emil draitser sami rein taagepera samizdat nickolas lupinin samoilova, kondordiya nikolayevna barbara evans clements samoupravlenie susan j. linz san stefano, treaty of oleg r. airapetov sarmatians brian porter sarts michael rouland sberbank juliet johnson science and technology policy paul r. josephson science fiction yvonne helen howell scientific socialism michael ellman scissors crisis robert c. stuart xli list of articles scythians roman k. kovalev second economy michael alexeev second secretary albert l. weeks secretariat norma c. noonan sectarianism j. eugene clay security council peter rutland serapion brothers elizabeth jones hemenway serbia, relations with richard frucht serednyaki martin c. spechler serfdom richard hellie sergei, patriarch edward e. roslof sergius, st. david b. miller service state richard hellie sevastopol jacob w. kipp seven-year plan martin c. spechler seven years’ war stephen m. norris shahumian, stepan georgievich ronald grigor suny shakhrai, sergei mikhailovich ann e. robertson shakhty trial peter h. solomon jr. shamil michael rouland shaposhnikov, boris mikhailovich bruce w. menning shatalin, stanislav sergeyevich dmitri glinski shcharansky, anatoly nikolayevich johanna granville shchepkin, mikhail semeonovich louise mcreynolds shcherbatov, mikhail mikhailovich johanna granville shevardnadze, eduard amvrosievich melvin goodman shevchenko, taras gregorevich serhy yekelchyk shlyapnikov, alexander gavrilovich barbara allen shock therapy stefan hedlund shockworkers lewis h. siegelbaum sholokhov, mikhail alexandrovich karl e. loewenstein short course david brandenberger shostakovich, dmitri dmitrievich matthias stadelmann show trials paul m. hagenloh shuisky, vasily ivanovich chester s. l. dunning shumeiko, vladimir filippovich ann e. robertson siberia victor l. mote sikorsky, igor ivanovich johanna granville silver age john e. bowlt simeon martin dimnik simonov, konstantin mikhailovich karl e. loewenstein simonov monaster.
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    Author: millar james title: encyclopedia of russian history language: ru encyclopedia of russian history james r. millar © 2004 by macmillan reference  winston churchill’s well-known description of russia as a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” has been widely quoted because it has seemed so apt to western observers. the cyrillic alphabet appears mysterious to the uninitiated, as does the odd system of dual dates for key historical events. russia is huge and geographically remote, with over one hundred ethnic groups and as many languages. historically, russia stood on the margin of europe proper, and russian society experienced the renaissance and the reformation, which shaped modern europe, only partially and belatedly. physical distance and prolonged isolation from europe would be sufficient to enhance and promote a distinctive russian culture. russians have themselves debated whether they are more european, or more asian, or instead a unique slavic civilization т-» r-» i-» i-? л ^-» i-» destined to provide the world with a “third” way. preface nikolai gogol, one of russia’s earliest and most original writers, expressed this messianic view in his novel dead souls, where he offered a speeding troika, a carriage drawn by three horses, as a metaphor for russia: russia, are you not speeding along like a fiery matchless troika? beneath you the road is smoke, the bridges thunder, and everything is left far behind. at your passage the onlooker stops amazed as by a divine miracle. . . . russia, where are you flying? answer me! there is no answer. the bells are tinkling and filling the air with their wonderful pealing; the air is torn and thundering as it turns to wind; everything on earth comes flying past and, looking askance at her, other peoples and states move aside and make way. the encyclopedia of russian history is designed to help dispel the mystery of russia. it is the first encyclopedia in the english language to comprehend the entirety of russian history, from ancient rus to the most recent events in post-soviet russia. it is not aimed primarily at specialists in the area but at general readers, students, and scholars who are curious about russia, have historical events, dates, and persons they wish to explore or papers to write on the widely varying topics and individuals contained herein. contributors include top scholars in history, russian studies, military history, economics, social science, literature, philosophy, music, and art history. the 1,500 entries have been composed by over 500 scholars from 16 countries. all were instructed to “historize” their entries, thereby placing them in the larger context of russian history. each entry is signed and feavii tures carefully chosen cross references to related entries as well as a bibliography of print and internet sources as suggested additional readings. the four volumes contain over 300 black and white maps and photographs illustrating the text, and each volume contains color inserts portraying the beauty and scope of russian peoples, art, and architecture, as well as important military and political pictorials. entries are arranged alphabetically, and the first volume includes a topical outline that organizes articles by broad categories, thereby offering teachers and students alike an informed map of russian history. a comprehensive subject index offers yet another entry point for the set, encouraging readers to explore the four volumes in greater depth. the encyclopedia is the product of recent scholarship. russian studies began as a significant field of study in the united states and europe only during the soviet era. although a small number of scholars were active before world war ii, particularly in england, the field began to grow in the united states with the onset of the cold war in the late 1940s. when the soviet union launched the first earth satellite, sputnik, in 1957, a concern for national security became a driving force for development of russian area studies. all fields grew especially rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, for it was recognized that study of the contemporary soviet social system would require in-depth knowledge of the language, history, and culture of russia. in the united states, for example, both the federal government and private foundations such as the ford foundation and the carnegie endowment funded graduate russian studies on an almost “crash” basis. whereas the russian institute of columbia university and the russian research center at harvard dominated the field initially, by the end of the 1960s all major research institutions had russian studies programs and were producing new ph.d.s in the field. in fact, most of the scholars who have ever received ph.d.s in the various fields of russian history, social science, arts, and so forth, are still active scholars. the field of russian-soviet studies now has better coverage and higher quality than ever. the 1991 collapse of the soviet union ended the ideological constraints that communism had placed on scholarly publication, allowing scholarship to blossom in post-soviet russia as well. researchers now have unprecedented access to archival and other historical materials-and to the russian people as well. the editors and i have been fortunate, therefore, to be able to select as our contributors-the most outstanding scholars not only in the united states, but also in britain, europe, and russia. twenty years ago it would not have been possible to produce such a balanced, high quality, and comprehensive encyclopedia. the last five decades or so of intensive scholarship have greatly increased our knowledge and understanding of russian history. as one views the length and breadth of the russian historical experience certain continuities and recurring patterns stand out. autocracy, for example, has ancient and strong roots in russian history. for most of its history, russia was led by all-powerful tsars, such as peter the great or nicholas i, who served willingly as autocrats, seemingly conscious of the difficulties inherent in ruling so large and diverse a country. even those tsars who sought to modify the autocracy, such as alexander ii, who emancipated the serfs, reversed course when confronted with revolutionary or nihilist opponents. soviet communism lapsed into autocracy under josef stalin, who was perhaps the most complete autocrat since peter the great. more recently, russian president, vladimir putin, appears to be tolerating a drift back toward autocracy in reaction to the democratic impulses of mikhail gorbachev and boris yeltsin. he seems to relish comparison of his rule to that of peter the great. with the exception of the years under soviet communism, orthodoxy has been autocracy’s twin. historically, the russian orthodox church has successfully resisted attempts to separate church and state and has offered support and justification for autocracy in return. consequently, the church and state have not welcomed religious diversity or promoted tolerance. judaism, catholicism, and other christian denominations, islam, and other religious faiths have suffered persecution and restrictions over the years. the soviet era differed only in than all religions were persecuted in the name of official atheism. the long-term trend has apparently reasserted itself as the growing strength of the russian orthodox church in the post-soviet years has featured renewed attempts to exclude religious competition. territorial expansion has characterized the development of russia from the earliest days, usually through warfare and hostile partitions. the great northern war brought russia to the baltic coast, while the wars of the nineteenth century expanded russia’s power into central asia. expanviii sion under the tsars included annexing territories occupied by settled peoples, as in ukraine, poland, and finland, and also by nomadic tribes, as in central asia, and the caucuses. the outcome of world war ii extended moscow’s reach into eastern europe, and during the cold war russia supported regimes in afghanistan, cuba, and insurgent movements in central america and africa. the process of empire-building brought more than 120 ethnic and national groups under russian rule. it was a costly exercise requiring a large standing army. russification versus promoting local languages and cultures in these territories was a recurring issue under tsars and commissars alike, and it remains an issue today in the russian federation. the collapse first of the soviet empire in east-central europe in 1988-1989 and then of the ussr itself in 1991 caused an equivalent contraction in moscow’s power and undermined the economy as well. consequently, although russia’s leaders have sought to maintain and even increase influence in what only russians call the “near abroad,” that is the former republics of the ussr, the empire has shrunk to its smallest extent since the eighteenth century, and the russia federation’s influence in its former republics, not to mention eastern and central europe, has been severely constrained by a lack of funds as well as by local nationalist feelings. successful modernization of europe has been viewed by russians as either a possible model for russia’s development or as a threat to her distinctive, peculiar social, political and economic institutions. from russia’s vantagepoint on the periphery of europe, to modernize has meant to westernize, with all the political and economic baggage that that implies. periodically, russia’s leaders have opened the “door” to europe, as peter the great put it, only to have it closed or restricted by those who have sought to maintain and foster russia’s unique civilization and its messianic mission in world history. in one form or another there has been a recurring struggle since the time of peter the great between the slavophiles and the westernizers, and this was even true during the soviet era. lenin and trotsky and the old bolsheviks thought they were opening russia to a global communist system. stalin closed it tightly and created an autarkic economy. nikita khrushchev, gorbachev, and yeltsin opened russia once again to the west, ultimately with catastrophic consequences for the empire. it has been difficult, however, to overcome the pull of the “russian idea,” and post-soviet development policies have been undercut by an ambiguous commitment to democratization and marketiza-tion. these issues, autocracy, orthodoxy, territorial expansionism, modernization, and cultural uniqueness, have appeared, disappeared, and reappeared throughout russian history. western and russian historians have argued at length about the strength, significance, and permanence of these themes, and the articles contained in this encyclopedia explore these issues as impartially and objectively as possible. there is no question, however, about the unique, unparalleled contributions of russian culture to art, music, literature, philosophy, and science. where would we be without glinka, mussorgsky, tchaikovsky, pushkin, gogol, dostoyevsky, tolstoy, chekhov, rublev, mendeleyev, sakharov and the many, many other artists, thinkers, and scientists that russia’s citizens of all nationalities have produced? the editors and i hope that the reader will use this encyclopedia to sample the richness of russian history and be induced to explore russian culture in depth. structure and organization of the encyclopedia project when macmillan reference usa approached me seeking an editor in chief for a projected encyclopedia of russian history, i realized that if i could persuade the best scholars in the field to serve as associate editors and on an editorial board, and if we could persuade other top scholars to write entries, the experience would be educational and highly worthwhile. i also realized that it would necessarily be a “labor of love” for all involved. participating scholars would have to believe in the intrinsic value of the project. i first approached dr. ann robertson, who was serving as managing editor of my journal, problems of post-communism, to see whether she would be willing to contribute her outstanding editorial skills as well as her expertise in political science to work closely with me as senior associate editor on the encyclopedia. next i approached professor nicholas riasanovsky of university of california at berkeley. as the leading historian of russia and director of innumerable ph.d. dissertations in the field, professor riasanovsky represented the keystone in the construction of the editorial committee. i knew that his name would assure other scholars of the serious academic nature of the project. i was soon able to recruit an ix awesome set of associate editors: daniel kaiser of grinnell college, louise mcreynolds of the university of hawaii at manoa, donald raleigh of the university of north carolina, and ronald suny of the university of chicago. with their assistance we recruited an equally outstanding advisory board. below are very brief biographies of the distinguished members on the editorial board: editor in chief james r. millar (ph.d. cornell university) is professor of economics and international affairs at the institute for european, russian and eurasian studies at the george washington university. his primary areas of research are soviet/russian economic history and economics of the transition. daniel h. kaiser (ph.d. university of chicago) is professor of history at grinnell college in iowa. his academic specialty is history and family life in early modern russia. louise mcreynolds (ph.d. university of chicago) is professor of history at the university of hawaii. she specializes in russian intellectual history and cultural studies. donald j. raleigh (ph.d. indiana university) is professor of history at the university of north carolina, chapel hill. his research specialization is twentieth-century russian and soviet history and the russian civil war. nicholas v. riasanovsky (d.phil. oxford university) is professor emeritus of history at the university of california at berkeley. he is the author of a history of russia (new york: oxford university press, 1963, sixth edition, 1999). ann e. robertson (ph.d. george washington university) is managing editor of the journal problems of post-communism, national council for eurasian and east european research. she specializes in post-soviet political science. ronald grigor suny (ph.d. columbia university, 1968) is professor of political science at the university of chicago. his research specialty is comparative politics and russian history with special attention to non-russian peoples. the editorial board assembled at george washington university in january 2001 to plan the encyclopedia. the topics we identified eventually totaled 1,500 entries. we decided to create basic article categories in an attempt to capture the range and scope of over 1,000 years of russian history and culture. as a result, articles in the encyclopedia describe: historical events documents, declarations, or treaties military campaigns or battles the arts, literature, philosophy, or science economic developments or strategies ethnic groups geographical regions political or territorial units (cities, regions, government ministries) countries prominent in russian history government policies or programs organizations, movements, or political parties influential individuals basic terms or phrases over the next few months members of the editorial board wrote scope statements and identified word lengths (ranging from 250 to 5,000 words) for the articles in their segment of the table of contents. our goal was to produce four volumes and one million words, a quota we easily could have exceeded. after authors were commissioned and assignments completed, each article was read by the appropriate member of the editorial board and by the editor in chief for final approval. macmillan reference staff has edited the entries for clarity, consistency, and style. a number of transliteration systems exist for presenting russian proper names and terms in the english language. as the main audience for the encyclopedia is not expected to be familiar with the russian language, strict adherence to any one system could appear artificial and intimidating. the editors decided to use standard american spelling of well-known proper names as they would appear in the new york times (e.g., boris yeltsin, not boris el’tsin). in all other cases transliterations conform to the conventions established by the u.s. board on geographic names. within this system we made a few exceptions: ligatures, soft signs, and hard signs are omitted; names ending in “-ii,” “-yi,” or “-yy” are shortened to “-y”; and names of tsars and saints have been anglicized, as peter the great and saint basil, not petr and vasily. the editors believe that this modified system for transliteration will be more readable and understandable than the alternatives. dates in russian history can be somewhat confusing because tsarist russia continued to use “old style” (o.s.) dates, based on the julian calendar, up to the 1917 revolution. in 1917 the julian calenx dar was 13 days behind the gregorian, which had been used in europe since 1582. the bolsheviks adopted new style (n.s.) dates. thus, the october 25th revolution was celebrated on november 7th. acknowledgments i want to thank james goldgeier, director of the institute for european, russian and eurasian studies of the george washington university for institutional support and personal encouragement. the staff of the institute, especially vedrana hadzialic and jennifer sieck, have efficiently and cheerfully helped advance this project in many ways. leah markowitz ably served as research assistant in the early phases of the project. jill lectka, director of publishing operations and joe clements, senior editor for macmillan reference usa, and their staff, have simply been superb in providing the managerial, editorial, and promotional support for the creation of the encyclopedia of russian history. they have been tactful but persistent in encouraging the editors and contributors to meet deadlines and make any necessary editorial changes. brian kinsey initiated the project in 2001 and shawn corridor joined the editorial team in the spring of 2003 to supervise final author corrections and entry preparation. we have been fortunate to have such outstanding professionals working with us. james r. millar editor in chief abkhazians b. george hewitt abortion policy sharon a. kowalsky academy of arts rosalind p. blakesley academy of sciences alexander vucinich administration for organized recruitment michael ellman administration, military david r. jones admiralty william craft brumfield adyge seteney shami adzhubei, alexei ivanovich william taubman aeroflot paul r. gregory afghanistan, relations with roger kangas aganbegyan, abel gezevich michael ellman agitprop k. andrea rusnock agrarian party of russia nikolai petrov agrarian reforms robert c. stuart agriculture robert c. stuart aigun, treaty of steven i. levine ajars b. george hewitt akayev, askar akayevich paul j. kubicek akhmatova, anna andreyevna diana senechal akhromeyev, sergei fyodorovich jacob w. kipp akhundov, mirza fath ali gregory twyman list of articles xv list of articles akkerman, convention of bruce w. menning aksakov, ivan sergeyevich abbott gleason aksakov, konstantin sergeyevich abbott gleason alash orda david r. jones alaska johanna granville albanians, caucasian robert h. hewsen alcoholism kate transchel alcohol monopoly patricia herlihy alexander i jean k. berger alexander ii stephen m. norris alexander iii peter waldron alexander mikhailovich martin dimnik alexander yaroslavich martin dimnik alexandra fedorovna nicholas ganson alexandrov, grigory alexandrovich denise j. youngblood alexei i, patriarch nathaniel davis alexei ii, patriarch nikolas k. gvosdev alexei mikhailovich philip longworth alexei nikolayevich nicholas ganson alexei petrovich lindsey hughes alexeyev, mikhail vasilievich oleg r. airapetov aliyev, heidar gerard j. libaridian allied intervention norman e. saul alliluyeva, svetlana iosifovna johanna granville altai victor l. mote altyn roman k. kovalev amalrik, andrei alexeyevich peter rollberg american relief administration william benton whisenhunt anarchism carl a. linden andrei alexandrovich martin dimnik andrei yaroslavich martin dimnik andrei yurevich martin dimnik andreyev, leonid nikolayevich peter rollberg andreyeva, nina alexandrovna jonathan harris andropov, yuri vladimirovich marc d. zlotnik andrusovo, peace of w. m. reger iv anna ivanovna zhand p. shakibi anthony khrapovitsky, metropolitan robert l. nichols anthony vadkovsky, metropolitan robert l. nichols anti-ballistic missile treaty raymond l. garthoff anti-comintern pact harold j. goldberg anti-party group william taubman antonov uprising a. delano dugarm appanage era elvira m. wilbur xvi list of articles apparat james r. millar april theses rex a. wade architecture william craft brumfield archives patricia kennedy grimsted armand, inessa elizabeth a. wood armenia and armenians george a. bournoutian armenian apostolic church paul crego armory lindsey hughes arms control walter c. clemens jr. artek jonathan d. wallace article 6 of 1977 constitution gordon b. smith assembly of the land richard hellie assortment plans susan j. linz astrakhan, khanate of roman k. kovalev atomic energy paul r. josephson august 1991 putsch ann e. robertson austerlitz, battle of frederick w. kagan austria, relations with hugh lecaine agnew autocracy zhand p. shakibi avars paul crego aviation albert l. weeks avvakum petrovich cathy j. potter azerbaijan and azeris gregory twyman babel, isaac emmanuyelovich milton ehre babi bunty brian kassof baikal-amur magistral railway christopher j. ward bakatin, vadim viktorovich jacob w. kipp bakhtin, mikhail mikhailovich gary saul morson baku audrey altstadt bakunin, mikhail alexandrovich albert l. weeks balaklava, battle of andrew lambert balalaika serge rogosin balkan wars richard frucht balkars paul crego ballet tim scholl baltic fleet johanna granville banking system, soviet pekka sutela banking system, tsarist martin c. spechler banya roman k. kovalev barannikov, viktor pavlovich jacob w. kipp barone, enrico richard e. ericson barshchina elvira m. wilbur barsov, alexander alexandrovich michael ellman baryatinsky, alexander ivanovich ronald grigor suny xvii list of articles bashkortostan and bashkirs daniel e. schafer basil i mikhail m. krom basil ii mikhail m. krom basil iii mikhail m. krom basmachis daniel e. schafer batu donald ostrowski bauer, yevgeny frantsevich joan neuberger bazarov, vladimir alexandrovich vincent barnett beard tax brian boeck bednyaki martin c. spechler belarus and belarusians david m. goldfrank belinsky, vissarion grigorievich peter rollberg belovezh accords paul j. kubicek bely, andrei diana senechal berdyayev, nikolai alexandrovich bernice glatzer rosenthal beria, lavrenti pavlovichv amy knight bering, vitus jonassen ilya vinkovetsky berlin blockade thomas parrish berlin, congress of david m. goldfrank berlin, convention of nikolas gvosdev beschestie nancy shields kollmann bessarabia john gledhill bestuzhev-ryumin, alexei petrovich john t. alexander birchbark charters simon franklin birobidzhan robert weinberg biron, ernst johann john t. alexander black earth victor l. mote black hundred jack langer black market julie hessler black repartition a. delano dugarm black sea fleet michael parrish blat martin c. spechler bloch, jan jacob w. kipp blok, alexander alexandrovich diana senechal bloody sunday walter sablinsky bobrikov, nikolai ivanovich tuomo polvinen bolotnikov, ivan isayevich chester dunning bolshevism robert c. williams bolshoi theater tim scholl bonner, yelena georgievna lisa a. kirschenbaum book of degrees gail lenhoff boretskaya, marfa ivanovna gail lenhoff borodino, battle of frederick w. kagan borotbisty serhy yekelchyk xviii list of articles boyar sergei bogatyrev boyar duma sergei bogatyrev brazauskas, algirdas alfred erich senn brest-litovsk peace sally a. boniece brezhnev doctrine kieran williams brezhnev, leonid ilich richard d. anderson jr. brodsky, joseph alexandrovich maria eitinguina bruce, james david johanna granville brusilov, alexei alexeyevich bruce w. menning bryusov, valery yakovlevich mark konecny bucharest, treaty of radu r. florescu budenny, semeon mikhailovich jonathan d. smele bukhara seymour becker bukharin, nikolai ivanovich carol gayle william moskoff bukovina john gledhill bulgakov, mikhail afanasievich diana senechal bulgakov, sergei nikolayevich catherine evtuhov bulganin, nikolai alexandrovich roger d. markwick bulgarians johanna granville bulgaria, relations with kyril drezov bund, jewish john d. klier bunin, ivan alexeyevich milton ehre bureaucracy, economic paul r. gregory buryats johanna granville butashevich-petrashevsky, mikhail vasilievich dmitri glinski bylina norman w. ingham byzantium, influence of simon franklin cabaret johanna granville cabinet of ministers, imperial john m. thompson cabinet of ministers, soviet gerald m. easter cadres policy christopher williams calendar ann e. robertson cantonists john d. klier capitalism thomas c. owen carpatho-rusyns paul robert magocsi cathedral of christ the savior nicholas ganson cathedral of st. basil lindsey hughes cathedral of st. sophia, kiev william craft brumfield cathedral of st. sophia, novgorod william craft brumfield cathedral of the archangel lindsey hughes cathedral of the dormition lindsey hughes catherine i lindsey hughes catherine ii john t. alexander catholicism gregory l. freeze xix list of articles caucasian wars robert f. baumann caucasus paul crego caves monastery david k. prestel caviar victor l. mote censorship charles a. ruud central asia roger kangas central bank of russia juliet johnson central committee johanna granville central control commission nick baron central statistical agency steven rosefielde chaadayev, peter yakovlevich raymond t. mcnally chagall, marc mark konecny chancellery system peter b. brown chapayev, vasily ivanovich denise j. youngblood chapbook literature e. anthony swift charskaya, lydia alexeyevna elizabeth jones hemenway charter of the cities george e. munro charter of the nobility nickolas lupinin chastushka roman k. kovalev chayanov, alexander vasilievich stephan merl chebrikov, viktor mikhailovich amy knight chechnya and chechens johanna nichols chekhov, anton pavlovich andrew r. durkin cherkess seteney shami chernenko, konstantin ustinovich marc d. zlotnik chernobyl david r. marples chernomyrdin, viktor stepanovich peter reddaway chernov, viktor mikhailovich sarah badcock chernuhka eliot borenstein chernyshev, alexander ivanovich frederick w. kagan chernyshevsky, nikolai gavrilovich victoria khiterer chervonets juliet johnson chesme, battle of john c. k. daly chicherin, georgy vasilievich teddy j. uldricks china, relations with steven i. levine chirikov, alexei ilich john mccannon chkalov, valery pavlovich john mccannon chkheidze, nikolai semenovich stephen jones christianization donald ostrowski chronicle of current events marshall s. shatz chronicle of human rights in the ussr marshall s. shatz chronicles gail lenhoff chubais, anatoly borisovich stefan hedlund chuikov, vasily ivanovich david m. glantz xx list of articles chukchi gail a. fondahl chukovskaya, lydia korneyevna jacqueline m. olich chukovsky, kornei ivanovich elizabeth jones hemenway church council george t. kosar church council, hundred chapters debra a. coulter chuvash daniel e. schafer cimmerians roman k. kovalev circus r?sa magn?sd?ttir civic union michael ellman civil war of 1425-1450 richard hellie civil war of 1917-1922 donald j. raleigh class system lewis h. siegelbaum climate victor l. mote cold war mark kramer collective farm robert c. stuart collective responsibility brian boeck collectivization of agriculture robert c. stuart colonial expansion richard hellie colonialism daniel brower command administrative economy richard e. ericson iii commanding heights of the economy martin c. spechler commissar sharon a. kowalsky committee for the operational management of the national economy peter rutland committee of soldiers’ mothers jacob w. kipp committees of the village poor a. delano dugarm commonwealth of independent states paul j. kubicek communism john m. thompson communist academy david brandenberger communist bloc yaroslav bilinsky communist information bureau gale stokes communist international william j. chase communist party of the russian federation luke march communist party of the soviet union graeme gill communist youth organizations anne e. gorsuch congress of people’s deputies thomas f. remington congress of russian communities nikolai petrov consistory vera shevzov constituent assembly michael melancon constitutional court gordon b. smith constitutional democratic party melissa k. stockdale constitution of 1918 albert l. weeks constitution of 1936 karen petrone constitution of 1977 peter b. maggs constitution of 1993 gordon b. smith xxi list of articles constructivism hugh d. hudson jr. control figures martin c. spechler conventional forces in europe treaty johanna granville cooperatives, law on carol gayle william moskoff cooperative societies william moskoff carol gayle copper riots jarmo t. kotilaine corporal punishment boris n. mironov corporation, russian thomas c. owen cosmopolitanism karl d. qualls cossacks bruce w. menning council for mutual economic assistance daniel r. kazmer council of ministers, soviet derek watson counterreforms daniel orlovsky country estates priscilla roosevelt court, high arbitration peter b. maggs court, supreme peter b. maggs crimea taras kuzio crimean khanate alan fisher crimean tatars alan fisher crimean war david m. goldfrank crony capitalism stefan hedlund cuban missile crisis hugh phillips cuba, relations with cole blasier cult of personality karen petrone cultural revolution sheila fitzpatrick benjamin zajicek custine, astolphe louis leonor peter rollberg customs books jarmo t. kotilaine cyril and methodius society serhy yekelchyk cyrillic alphabet ann e. robertson cyril of turov norman w. ingham czartoryski, adam jerzy johanna granville czechoslovakia, invasion of kieran williams czechoslovakia, relations with ann e. robertson dagestan paul crego daniel, metropolitan david m. goldfrank daniel, yuli markovich john mccannon danilevsky, nikolai yakovlevich albert l. weeks dargins paul crego dashkova, yekaterina romanovna michelle lamarche marrese dashnaktsutiun gerard j. libaridian decembrist movement and rebellion elena zemskova decree on land stephen k. wegren dedovshchina jonathan weiler xxii list of articles defectors, soviet era amy knight democratic party nikolai petrov democratic russia nikolai petrov democratic union nikolai petrov democratization dmitri glinski demography cynthia j. buckley denga roman k. kovalev denikin, anton ivanovich anatol shmelev denmark, relations with jarmo t. kotilaine deportations eric lohr derzhavin, gavryl romanovich johanna granville de-stalinization graeme gill d?tente marie-pierre rey developed socialism vladimir e. shlapentokh dezhnev, semen ivanovich john mccannon diagilev, sergei pavlovich tim scholl dialectical materialism alfred b. evans jr. dictatorship of the proletariat ray taras diocese cathy j. potter dionisy a. dean mckenzie disenfranchized persons golfo alexopoulos dissident movement yaroslav bilinsky dmitry alexandrovich martin dimnik dmitry, false chester dunning dmitry mikhailovich martin dimnik dmitry of uglich brian boeck doctors’ plot david brandenberger dolgans johanna granville domostroi carolyn johnston pouncy donation books ludwig steindorff donskoy, dmitry ivanovich gail lenhoff dostoyevsky, fyodor mikhailovich peter rollberg dudayev, dzhokhar dmitri glinski dugin, alexander gelevich jacob w. kipp duma john m. thompson dunayevsky, isaak osipovich richard stites dungan johanna granville durova, nadezhda andreyevna mary zirin dvoeverie stella rock dvorianstvo richard hellie dyachenko, tatiana borisovna peter reddaway dyak peter b. brown dzerzhinsky, felix edmundovich robert e. blobaum economic growth, extensive martin c. spechler xxiii list of articles economic growth, imperial paul r. gregory economic growth, intensive steven rosefielde economic growth, soviet gur ofer economic reform commission michael ellman economism martin c. spechler economy, post-soviet paul r. gregory economy, tsarist carol gayle william moskoff edinonachalie susan j. linz education brian kassof ehrenburg, ilya grigorovich john patrick farrell eisenstein, sergei mikhailovich joan neuberger electoral commission nikolai petrov electricity grid peter rutland elizabeth john t. alexander emancipation act julia ulyannikova empire, ussr as zhand p. shakibi engels, friedrich alfred b. evans jr. enlightenment, impact of olga tsapina enserfment richard hellie enterprise, soviet susan j. linz environmentalism rachel may episcopate zoe knox estonia and estonians art leete ethiopian civil war johanna granville ethnography, russian and soviet nathaniel knight evenki gail a. fondahl faberg?, peter carl louise mcreynolds family code of 1926 wendy goldman family code on marriage, the family, and guardianship wendy goldman family edict of 1944 rebecca balmas neary family laws of 1936 wendy goldman famine of 1891-1892 richard g. robbins jr. famine of 1921-1922 mark b. tauger famine of 1932-1933 mark b. tauger famine of 1946 nicholas ganson far eastern region gilbert rozman fatherland-all russia nikolai petrov feast books ludwig steindorff february revolution rex a. wade federal assembly thomas f. remington federalism roger kangas federal property fund james r. millar federation treaties edward w. walker feldman, grigory alexandrovich martin c. spechler xxiv list of articles feldsher samuel c. ramer fellow travelers karl e. loewenstein feminism linda edmondson ferghana valley michael rouland feudalism richard hellie filaret drozdov, metropolitan robert nichols filaret romanov, patriarch russell e. martin finland paul j. kubicek finns and karelians rein taagepera firebird norman w. ingham five-hundred-day plan robert w. campbell five-year plans holland hunter florence, council of george p. majeska folklore patricia arant folk music susannah lockwood smith fondoderzhateli paul r. gregory fonvizin, denis ivanovich johanna granville food darra goldstein foreign debt stefan hedlund foreign trade martin c. spechler france, relations with marie-pierre rey free economic society carol gayle william moskoff freemasonry olga tsapina french influence in russia martine mespoulet french war of 1812 frederick w. kagan frontier fortifications brian davies frunze, mikhail vasilievich michael parrish full economic accounting susan j. linz fundamental laws of 1906 oleg budnitskii funded commodities james r. millar futurism hugh d. hudson jr. fyodor alexeyevich lindsey hughes fyodor ii chester dunning fyodor ivanovich johanna granville fyodorov, boris grigorievich peter rutland fyodorov, ivan hugh m. olmsted gagarin, yuri alexeyevich phyllis conn gagauz mikhail guboglo gaidar, yegor timurovich peter rutland gamsakhurdia, zviad stephen jones gapon, georgy apollonovich walter sablinsky gaspirali, ismail bey edward j. lazzerini gatchina william craft brumfield general secretary norma c. noonan xxv list of articles geneticists james r. millar geneva summit of 1985 raymond l. garthoff genoa conference teddy j. uldricks genocide gerard j. libaridian geography victor l. mote georgia and georgians paul crego georgian orthodox church paul crego german democratic republic melissa r. jordine german settlers kevin alan brook germany, relations with melissa r. jordine gigantomania victoria khiterer ginzburg, evgenia semenovna alison rowley gkos pekka sutela glasnost carl a. linden glavki martin c. spechler glavlit brian kassof glinka, mikhail ivanovich matthias stadelmann glinskaya, yelena vasilyevna isolde thyr?t gnezdovo heidi m. sherman godunov, boris fyodorovich chester dunning gogol, nikolai vasilievich diana senechal golden age of russian literature michael a. denner golden horde donald ostrowski gold standard juliet johnson golitsyn, vasily vasilievich lindsey hughes goncharova, natalia sergeyevna jane a. sharp goncharov, ivan alexandrovich catherine o’neil goods famine robert c. stuart gorbachev, mikhail sergeyevich archie brown gorbachev, raisa maximovna archie brown gorchakov, alexander mikhailovich norman e. saul gordon, patrick leopold jarmo t. kotilaine goremykin, ivan longinovich john m. thompson gorky, maxim tovah yedlin gosbank juliet johnson gosizdat brian kassof goskomstat martine mespoulet gosplan paul r. gregory gosti samuel h. baron gostinaya sotnya jarmo t. kotilaine gosudaryev dvor sergei bogatyrev governing senate zhand p. shakibi grain crisis of 1928 carol gayle william moskoff grain trade boris n. mironov xxvi list of articles grand alliance david m. glantz grand prince janet martin great britain, relations with johanna granville great northern war paul a. bushkovitch great reforms daniel field greece, relations with johanna granville greeks patricia herlihy green movement a. delano dugarm griboedov, alexander sergeyevich johanna granville grigorenko, peter grigorievich jonathan weiler grishin, viktor vasilievich terry d. clark grivna roman k. kovalev gromov, boris vsevolodovich jacob w. kipp gromyko, andrei andreyevich graeme gill grossman, vasily semenovich karl e. loewenstein guards, regiments of frederick w. kagan guba administrative system brian davies guberniya nick baron guilds thomas c. owen gulag david j. nordlander gum julie hessler gumilev, lev nikolayevich jacob w. kipp gumilev, nikolai stepanovich brian kassof gypsy darrell slider gypsymania richard stites hagiography gail lenhoff hague peace conferences walter c. clemens jr. hanseatic league lawrence n. langer hard budget constraints susan j. linz hayek, friedrich richard e. ericson health care services, imperial samuel c. ramer health care services, soviet mark g. field hegel, georg wilhelm friedrich albert l. weeks helsinki accords christopher j. ward herzen, alexander ivanovich dmitri glinski higher party school peter rutland hilarion, metropolitan david k. prestel his majesty’s own chancery zhand p. shakibi historical songs norman w. ingham historiography oleg budnitskii holy alliance david wetzel holy synod debra a. coulter homeless children jacqueline m. olich hrushevsky, mikhail sergeyevich serhy yekelchyk xxvii list of articles human rights peter juviler hungarian revolution johanna granville hungary, relations with johanna granville huns roman k. kovalev icons gregory l. freeze idealism boris gubman igor martin dimnik ilminsky, nikolai ivanovich isabelle kreindler immigration and emigration eric lohr imperial russian geographical society victor l. mote imperial russian technological society martine mespoulet index number relativity gur ofer indicative planning martin c. spechler industrialization robert c. stuart industrialization, rapid gur ofer industrialization, soviet paul r. gregory inorodtsy john d. klier input-output analysis steven rosefielde institute of red professors david brandenberger instruction, legislative commission of catherine ii michelle denbeste intelligentsia victoria khiterer intermediate range nuclear forces treaty walter c. clemens jr. international space station john m. logsdon inter-regional deputies’ group peter reddaway iran, relations with robert o. freedman iraq, relations with robert o. freedman iron curtain karl d. qualls islam adeeb khalid israel, relations with robert o. freedman italy, relations with j. calvitt clarke iii ivan i martin dimnik ivan ii martin dimnik ivan iii mikhail m. krom ivan iv sergei bogatyrev ivan v paul a. bushkovitch ivan vi lindsey hughes ivashko, vladimir antonovich david r. marples izba richard hellie izvestiya matthew e. lenoe izyaslav i martin dimnik izyaslav mstislavich martin dimnik jackson-vanik agreement robert o. freedman jadidism edward j. lazzerini japan, relations with charles e. ziegler xxviii list of articles jassy, treaty of bruce w. menning jews john d. klier joakim, patriarch cathy j. potter job, patriarch debra a. coulter joseph of volotsk, st. david m. goldfrank journalism charles a. ruud judaizers david m. goldfrank july days of 1917 michael c. hickey kabardians seteney shami kaganovich, lazar moyseyevich kate transchel kal 007 timothy thomas kaliningrad richard j. krickus kalinin, mikhail ivanovich kate transchel kalmyks johanna granville kamenev, lev borisovich michael c. hickey kandinsky, vassily vassilyvich mark konecny kantorovich, leonid vitaliyevich martin c. spechler kaplan, fanya sally a. boniece karachai brian boeck karakalpaks paul j. kubicek karakhan declaration teddy j. uldricks karamzin, nikolai mikhailovich andreas sch?nle kasyanov, mikhail mikhailovich peter rutland katkov, mikhail nikiforovich victoria khiterer katyn forest massacre albert l. weeks kaufman, konstantin petrovich daniel brower kazakhstan and kazakhs david r. jones kazan donald ostrowski kellogg-briand pact teddy j. uldricks kerensky, alexander fyodorovich rex a. wade khabarov, yerofei pavlovich john mccannon khakass johanna granville khalkin-gol, battle of mary r. habeck khanty art leete khasbulatov, ruslan imranovich ann e. robertson khazars roman k. kovalev khiva daniel brower khmelnitsky, bohdan frank e. sysyn khomyakov, alexei stepanovich abbott gleason khovanshchina lindsey hughes khozraschet susan j. linz khrushchev, nikita sergeyevich william taubman khutor william moskoff carol gayle kievan caves patericon david k. prestel xxix list of articles kievan rus janet martin kireyevsky, ivan vasilievich abbott gleason kirill-beloozero monastery robert romanchuk kiriyenko, sergei vladilenovich hugh phillips kirov, sergei mironovich paul m. hagenloh klyuchevsky, vasily osipovich boris n. mironov kokoshin, andrei afanasievich jacob w. kipp kolchak, alexander vasilievich n. g. o. pereira kollontai, alexandra mikhailovna barbara evans clements komi rein taagepera komuch victor m. fic kondratiev, nikolai dmitrievich vincent barnett konev, ivan stepanovich michael parrish konstantin nikolayevich larissa zakharova kopeck jarmo t. kotilaine koreans andrei lankov korean war kathryn weathersby korea, relations with andrei lankov korenizatsya robert maier kormchaya kniga martin dimnik kormlenie stefan hedlund kornai, janos martin c. spechler kornilov affair rex a. wade korolenko, vladimir galaktionovich johanna granville korsh theater louise mcreynolds koryaks johanna granville korzhakov, alexander vasilievich peter reddaway kosmodemyanskaya, zoya rosalinde sartorti kosygin, alexei nikolayevich graeme gill kosygin reforms martin c. spechler kotoshikhin, grigory karpovich benjamin uroff kovalev, sergei adamovich peter reddaway kovalevskaya, sofia vasilievna mary zirin kozlov, frol romanovich william taubman kozyrev, andrei vladimirovich paul j. kubicek krasnov, pyotr nikolayevich jonathan d. smele kravchuk, leonid makarovich robert s. kravchuk kremlin william craft brumfield kremlinology anthony d’agostino kritzman, lev natanovich nick baron kronstadt uprising a. delano dugarm kropotkin, pyotr alexeyevich john slatter krupskaya, nadezhda konstantinovna elizabeth a. wood krylov, ivan andreyevich louise mcreynolds xxx list of articles kryuchkov, vladimir alexandrovich amy knight kuchuk kainarji, treaty of norman e. saul kulaks stephan merl kuleshov, lev vladimirovich denise j. youngblood kulikovo field, battle of donald ostrowski kulturnost julia obertreis kunayev, dinmukhammed akhmedovich david r. jones kurbsky, andrei mikhailovich sergei bogatyrev kurds johanna granville kuril islands charles e. ziegler kuritsyn, fyodor vasilevich david m. goldfrank kuropatkin, alexei nikolayevich david schimmelpenninck van der oye kursk, battle of david m. glantz kursk submarine disaster jacob w. kipp kustar e. anthony swift kutuzov, mikhail ilarionovich frederick w. kagan kuybyshev, valerian vladimirovich kate transchel kuznetsov, nikolai gerasimovich michael parrish kyrgyzstan and kyrgyz roger kangas labor david pretty labor books robert c. stuart labor day robert c. stuart labor theory of value alfred b. evans jr. lake baikal rachel may land and freedom party christopher williams land captain oleg budnitskii landsbergis, vytautas alfred erich senn land tenure, imperial era michelle lamarche marrese land tenure, soviet and post-soviet stephen k. wegren language laws vladislava reznik latvia and latvians andrejs plakans law code of 1649 richard hellie lay of igor’s campaign norman w. ingham lazarev institute george a. bournoutian league of armed neutrality norman e. saul league of nations teddy j. uldricks league of the militant godless daniel peris lebed, alexander ivanovich jacob w. kipp lefortovo georg wurzer left opposition kate transchel left socialist revolutionaries michael melancon legal systems michael newcity legislative commission of 1767-1768 janet hartley leichoudes, ioannikios and sophronios nikolaos a. chrissidis xxxi list of articles leipzig, battle of oleg budnitskii lena goldfields massacre michael melancon lend lease mikhail suprun leningrad affair richard bidlack leningrad, siege of richard bidlack lenin’s testament christopher williams lenin’s tomb karen petrone lenin, vladimir ilich christopher read leontiev, konstantin nikolayevich alfred b. evans jr. lermontov, mikhail yurievich zhand p. shakibi leskov, nikolai semenovich peter rollberg lesnaya, battle of paul a. bushkovitch lezgins paul crego liberal democratic party nikolai petrov liberalism hugh phillips liberman, yevsei grigorevich robert w. campbell ligachev, yegor kuzmich jonathan harris likhachev, dmitry sergeyevich john patrick farrell lithuania and lithuanians alfred erich senn litvinov, maxim maximovich hugh phillips living church movement edward e. roslof livonian war mikhail m. krom lobachevsky, nikolai ivanovich alexander vucinich local government and administration igor yeykelis lomonosov, mikhail vasilievich alexander vucinich loris-melikov, mikhail tarielovich oleg budnitskii lotman, yuri mikhailovich johanna granville lovers of wisdom, the victoria frede lubok gary thurston lubyanka georg wurzer lukashenko, alexander grigorievich david r. marples lukyanov, anatoly ivanovich ann e. robertson lunacharsky, anatoly vasilievich sheila fitzpatrick luzhkov, yuri mikhailovich terry d. clark lysenko, trofim denisovich r?sa magn?sd?ttir machine tractor stations robert c. stuart mafia capitalism stefan hedlund main political directorate ann e. robertson makarov, stepan osipovich jacob w. kipp makary, metropolitan donald ostrowski makhno, nestor ivanovich jonathan d. smele malenkov, georgy maximilyanovich david r. marples malevich, kazimir severinovich hugh d. hudson jr. malta summit raymond l. garthoff xxxii list of articles mandelshtam, nadezhda yakovlevna judith e. kalb mandelshtam, osip emilievich judith e. kalb manifesto of 1763 john t. alexander mansi rein taagepera mari el and the mari seppo lallukka market socialism richard ericson marriage and family life william g. wagner martov, yuli osipovich nick baron marxism alfred b. evans jr. maslenitsa roman k. kovalev material balances susan j. linz material product system misha v. belkindas matryoshka dolls priscilla roosevelt matveyev, artamon sergeyevich martha luby lahana maxim the greek, st. hugh m. olmsted mayakovsky, vladimir vladimirovich mark konecny mazepa, hetman ivan stepanovich lindsey hughes medvedev, roy alexandrovich roger d. markwick medvedev, sylvester agafonikovich nikolaos a. chrissidis medvedev, zhores alexandrovich r?sa magn?sd?ttir melnikov, konstantin stepanovich hugh d. hudson jr. memorial peter reddaway mendeleyev, dmitry ivanovich alexander vucinich mensheviks alice k. pate menshikov, alexander danilovich lindsey hughes mercantilism martin c. spechler merchants thomas c. owen meskhetian turks justin odum mestnichestvo nancy shields kollmann metropolitan donald ostrowski meyerhold, vsevolod yemilievich sharon marie carnicke mighty handful matthias stadelmann migration cynthia j. buckley mikhailovsky, nikolai konstantinovich dmitri glinski mikhalkov, nikita sergeyevich joan neuberger mikoyan, anastas ivanovich roger d. markwick military art bruce w. menning military doctrine bruce w. menning military-economic planning mark harrison military, imperial era bruce w. menning military-industrial complex steven rosefielde military intelligence david schimmelpenninck van der oye military reforms john w. steinberg military, soviet and post-soviet roger r. reese xxxiii list of articles milyukov, paul nikolayevich oleg budnitskii milyutin, dmitry alexeyevich larissa zakharova milyutin, nikolai alexeyevich daniel field mingrelians b. george hewitt minin, kuzma maureen perrie ministries, economic paul r. gregory ministry of foreign trade james r. millar ministry of internal affairs mark galeotti mir stephan merl mir space station john m. logsdon mniszech, marina chester dunning moiseyev, mikhail alexeyevich jacob w. kipp moldova and moldovans william crowther molotov, vyacheslav mikhailovich derek watson monasticism scott m. kenworthy monetary overhang pekka sutela monetary system, soviet pekka sutela montenegro, relations with john d. treadway mordvins isabelle kreindler morozova, feodosya prokopevna nada boskovska morozov, boris ivanovich richard hellie morozov, pavel trofimovich catriona kelly moscow terry d. clark moscow agricultural society robert e. johnson moscow art theater sharon marie carnicke moscow baroque lindsey hughes moscow, battle of anthony young moscow olympics of 1980 paul r. josephson moskvitin, ivan yurievich john mccannon motion pictures denise j. youngblood movement for democratic reforms jonathan harris movement in support of the army nikolai petrov mstislav martin dimnik muraviev, nikita johanna granville musavat gregory twyman muscovy david m. goldfrank museum, hermitage ann e. robertson music matthias stadelmann myasoedov affair eric lohr nagorno-karabakh gerard j. libaridian nagrodskaya, evdokia apollonovna johanna granville nakhichevan gregory twyman nakhimov, pavel stepanovich john c. k. daly napoleon i marie-pierre rey xxxiv list of articles narimanov, nariman audrey altstadt narva, battles of paul a. bushkovitch naryshkina, natalia kirillovna lindsey hughes national library of russia janice t. pilch nationalism in the arts stephen m. norris nationalism in the soviet union victoria khiterer nationalism in tsarist empire timothy snyder nationalities policies, soviet jeremy smith nationalities policies, tsarist andreas kappeler nation and nationality vera tolz navarino, battle of john c. k. daly nazarbayev, nursultan abishevich david r. jones nazi-soviet pact of 1939 derek watson near abroad christopher williams nechayev, sergei geradievich philip pomper nekrasov, nikolai alexeyevich johanna granville nemchinov, vasily sergeyevich robert w. campbell nemtsov, boris ivanovich hugh phillips nenets gail a. fondahl neoclassicism rosalind p. gray nerchinsk, treaty of jarmo t. kotilaine neronov, ivan cathy j. potter nesselrode, karl robert david m. goldfrank net material product misha v. belkindas new economic policy martin c. spechler new-formation regiments w. m. reger iv new political thinking archie brown newspapers matthew e. lenoe new statute of commerce richard hellie nicaragua, relations with cole blasier nicholas i stephen m. norris nicholas ii peter waldron nihilism and nihilists alfred b. evans jr. nijinsky, vaslav fomichv tim scholl nikitin, afanasy gail lenhoff nikon, patriarch cathy j. potter nil sorsky, st. david m. goldfrank nogai roman k. kovalev nomenklatura albert l. weeks normanist controversy heidi m. sherman north atlantic treaty organization andrew a. michta northern convoys mikhail suprun northern fleet johanna granville northern peoples gail a. fondahl xxxv list of articles norway, relations with jarmo t. kotilaine novgorod, archbishop of lawrence n. langer novgorod judicial charter lawrence n. langer novgorod the great janet martin novikov, nikolai ivanovich johanna granville novocherkassk uprising samuel h. baron novosibirsk report alfred b. evans jr. novosiltsev, nikolai nikolayevich hugh phillips novozhilov, viktor valentinovich robert w. campbell novy mir catharine nepomnyashchy nystadt, treaty of lindsey hughes obrok elvira m. wilbur obruchev, nikolai nikolayevich oleg r. airapetov obshchina steven a. grant occultism maria carlson october 1993 events peter reddaway october general strike of 1905 gerald d. surh october manifesto oleg budnitskii october revolution alexander rabinowitch octobrist party zhand p. shakibi odoyevsky, vladimir fyodorovich johanna granville official nationality cynthia hyla whittaker ogarkov, nikolai vasilevich jacob w. kipp okolnichy sergei bogatyrev okudzhava, bulat shalovich gerald smith old believer committee roy r. robson old believers roy r. robson old style ann e. robertson oleg martin dimnik olga david k. prestel opera albrecht gaub operation barbarossa a. delano dugarm oprichnina sergei bogatyrev ordin-nashchokin, afanasy lavrentievich martha luby lahana ordzhonikidze, grigory konstantinovich nick baron organized crime louise shelley orgburo christopher williams orlova, lyubov petrovna denise j. youngblood orlov, grigory grigorievich john t. alexander orthodoxy edward e. roslof osetins brian boeck osorina, yulianya ustinovna nada boskovska ostromir gospel david k. prestel ostrovsky, alexander nikolayevich gary thurston xxxvi list of articles otrepev, grigory chester dunning our home is russia party nikolai petrov pacific fleet johanna granville paganism david k. prestel pakistan, relations with johanna granville palekh painting k. andrea rusnock pale of settlement diana fisher paleologue, sophia isolde thyr?t pallas, peter-simon alexander vucinich pamyat zoe knox panslavism abbott gleason paris, congress and treaty of 1856 david m. goldfrank paris, first and second treaties of marie-pierre rey party congresses and conferences robert v. daniels party of russian unity and accord nikolai petrov passport system golfo alexopoulos pasternak, boris leonidovich larissa rudova patriarchate paul a. bushkovitch paul i marie-pierre rey pavliuchenko, lyudmila mikhailovna kazimiera j. cottam pavlova, anna matveyevna tim scholl pavlov, ivan petrovich sharon a. kowalsky pavlov, valentin sergeyevich johanna granville peasant economy stephen k. wegren peasantry robert e. johnson peasant uprisings dmitri glinski pechenegs roman k. kovalev peking, treaty of steven i. levine pelevin, viktor olegovich eliot borenstein people’s commissariat of nationalities ronald grigor suny people’s control committee ann e. robertson people’s houses e. anthony swift people’s party of free russia nikolai petrov people’s will, the deborah pearl perestroika archie brown permanent revolution carl a. linden perovskaya, sofia lvovna oleg budnitskii persian gulf war robert o. freedman pestel, pavel ivanovich paul crego peter i lindsey hughes peter ii lindsey hughes peter iii lindsey hughes peter and paul fortress william craft brumfield petrashevtsy kathryn weathersby xxxvii list of articles petrov, grigory spiridonovich jennifer hedda petrushka patricia arant petty tutelage susan j. linz photography erika wolf pimen, patriarch nathaniel davis pirogov, nikolai ivanovich alexander vucinich pisarev, dmitry ivanovich johanna granville planners’ preferences richard ericson platon (levshin) j. eugene clay platonov, sergei fyodorovich oleg budnitskii plehve, vyacheslav konstantinovich edward h. judge plekhanov, georgy valentinovich samuel h. baron plenum julie degraffenried pobedonostsev, konstantin michelle denbeste podgorny, nikolai viktorovich roger d. markwick podyachy peter b. brown podzol victor l. mote pogodin, mikhail petrovich johanna granville pogroms david pretty pokrovsky, mikhail nikolayevich george enteen poland theodore r. weeks polar explorers john mccannon poles johanna granville polish rebellion of 1863 brian porter politburo graeme gill political party system thomas f. remington polotsky, simeon paul a. bushkovitch polovtsy roman k. kovalev poltava, battle of jarmo t. kotilaine polyane roman k. kovalev pomestie richard hellie ponomarev, boris kharitonovich roger d. markwick popov, alexander stepanovich johanna granville popov, gavriil kharitonovich erik s. herron popov, pavel ilich robert w. campbell popular front policy harold j. goldberg populism christopher williams port arthur, siege of bruce w. menning portsmouth, treaty of nikolas gvosdev posadnik lawrence n. langer possessors and non-possessors david m. goldfrank postal system alison rowley potemkin, grigory alexandrovich john t. alexander potemkin mutiny igor yeykelis xxxviii list of articles potsdam conference joseph l. nogee pozharsky, dmitry mikhailovich maureen perrie pravda matthew e. lenoe preobrazhensky guards bruce w. menning preobrazhensky, yevgeny alexeyevich don filtzer presidency erik s. herron presidential council christopher williams presidium of supreme soviet richard hellie primakov, yevgeny maximovich robert v. daniels primary chronicle donald ostrowski primary party organization christopher williams prime minister gerald m. easter primitive socialist accumulation james r. millar prisons georg wurzer prison songs julia ulyannikova privatization marie lavigne procuracy gordon b. smith prodnalog stephen k. wegren prodrazverstka stephen k. wegren production sharing agreement james r. millar prokofiev, sergei sergeyevich matthias stadelmann prokopovich, feofan gregory l. freeze proletkult lynn mally propp, vladimir iakovlevich natalie o. kononenko prostitution laurie bernstein protazanov, yakov alexandrovic denise j. youngblood protestantism paul d. steeves protopopov, alexander dmitrievich nicholas v. riasanovsky provisional government daniel orlovsky prussia, relations with hugh phillips pruth river, campaign and treaty of jean k. berger pskov judicial charter lawrence n. langer public opinion studies steven a. grant pugachev, emelian ivanovich john t. alexander pugo, boris karlovich jacob w. kipp purges, the great gabor t. rittersporn pushkin, alexander sergeyevich diana senechal pushkin house vanessa bittner putin, vladimir vladimirovich dale herspring pytatakov, georgy leonidovich kate transchel quadruple alliance and quintuple alliance hugh phillips rabbinical commission chaeran y. freeze rabkrin nick baron rachmaninov, sergei vasilievich albert l. weeks xxxix list of articles radek, karl bernardovich william j. chase radishchev, alexander nikolayevich w. gareth jones radzinsky, edvard stanislavich jacob w. kipp raikin, arkady isaakovich robert weinberg railways victor l. mote raionirovanie james heinzen rapallo, treaty of harold j. goldberg rasputin, grigory yefimovich joseph t. fuhrmann rastrelli, bartolomeo william craft brumfield ratchet effect susan j. linz razin rebellion james g. hart raznochintsy victoria khiterer redemption payments a. delano dugarm red guards rex a. wade red square william craft brumfield red terror vladimir brovkin referendum of april 1993 nikolai petrov referendum of december 1993 gordon b. smith referendum of march 1991 edward w. walker refuseniks jonathan d. wallace regionalism susan smith-peter reitern, mikhail khristoforovich jacob w. kipp religion gregory l. freeze repin, ilya yefimovich louise mcreynolds repressed inflation steven rosefielde revolution of 1905 abraham ascher reykjavik summit raymond l. garthoff right opposition kate transchel rimsky-korsakov, nikolai andreyevich matthias stadelmann rodzianko, mikhail vladimirovich john m. thompson roerich, nicholas konstantinovich john mccannon romania, relations with radu r. florescu romanova, anastasia isolde thyr?t romanova, anastasia nikolayevna ann e. robertson romanov dynasty russell e. martin romanov, grigory vasilievich ann e. robertson romanov, mikhail fyodorovich russell e. martin romanticism yuri tulupenko rostislav martin dimnik rostovtsev, mikhail ivanovich a. delano dugarm rota system janet martin route to greeks roman k. kovalev ruble jarmo t. kotilaine ruble control pekka sutela xl list of articles rublev, andrei a. dean mckenzie ruble zone juliet johnson rumyantsev, peter alexandrovich lindsey hughes rurik martin dimnik rurikid dynasty janet martin russia-belarus union omer fisher russia company maria salomon arel russian association of proletarian writers brian kassof russian federal securities commission james r. millar russian federation johanna granville russian geographical society victor l. mote russian justice daniel h. kaiser russian national unity party william d. jackson russian orthodox church gregory l. freeze russians nancy ries russian soviet federated socialist republic johanna granville russian state library janice t. pilch russia’s democratic choice nikolai petrov russification theodore r. weeks russo-japanese war john w. steinberg russo-persian wars robert f. baumann russo-turkish wars bruce w. menning rutskoi, alexander vladimirovich jacob w. kipp rybkin, ivan petrovich nikolai petrov rykov, alexei ivanovich derek watson ryleyev, kondraty fyodorovich johanna granville ryutin, martemyan james white ryzhkov, nikolai ivanovich ann e. robertson saints gregory l. freeze sakha and yakuts erin k. crouch sakharov, andrei dmitrievich lisa a. kirschenbaum saltykov-shchedrin, mikhail yevgrafovich emil draitser sami rein taagepera samizdat nickolas lupinin samoilova, kondordiya nikolayevna barbara evans clements samoupravlenie susan j. linz san stefano, treaty of oleg r. airapetov sarmatians brian porter sarts michael rouland sberbank juliet johnson science and technology policy paul r. josephson science fiction yvonne helen howell scientific socialism michael ellman scissors crisis robert c. stuart xli list of articles scythians roman k. kovalev second economy michael alexeev second secretary albert l. weeks secretariat norma c. noonan sectarianism j. eugene clay security council peter rutland serapion brothers elizabeth jones hemenway serbia, relations with richard frucht serednyaki martin c. spechler serfdom richard hellie sergei, patriarch edward e. roslof sergius, st. david b. miller service state richard hellie sevastopol jacob w. kipp seven-year plan martin c. spechler seven years’ war stephen m. norris shahumian, stepan georgievich ronald grigor suny shakhrai, sergei mikhailovich ann e. robertson shakhty trial peter h. solomon jr. shamil michael rouland shaposhnikov, boris mikhailovich bruce w. menning shatalin, stanislav sergeyevich dmitri glinski shcharansky, anatoly nikolayevich johanna granville shchepkin, mikhail semeonovich louise mcreynolds shcherbatov, mikhail mikhailovich johanna granville shevardnadze, eduard amvrosievich melvin goodman shevchenko, taras gregorevich serhy yekelchyk shlyapnikov, alexander gavrilovich barbara allen shock therapy stefan hedlund shockworkers lewis h. siegelbaum sholokhov, mikhail alexandrovich karl e. loewenstein short course david brandenberger shostakovich, dmitri dmitrievich matthias stadelmann show trials paul m. hagenloh shuisky, vasily ivanovich chester s. l. dunning shumeiko, vladimir filippovich ann e. robertson siberia victor l. mote sikorsky, igor ivanovich johanna granville silver age john e. bowlt simeon martin dimnik simonov, konstantin mikhailovich karl e. loewenstein simonov monaster.
    Millar James - Encyclopedia of Russian History.rtf

  14. Millar James Encyclopedia of Russian History

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    Author: millar james title: encyclopedia of russian history language: ru encyclopedia of russian history james r. millar © 2004 by macmillan reference  winston churchill’s well-known description of russia as a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” has been widely quoted because it has seemed so apt to western observers. the cyrillic alphabet appears mysterious to the uninitiated, as does the odd system of dual dates for key historical events. russia is huge and geographically remote, with over one hundred ethnic groups and as many languages. historically, russia stood on the margin of europe proper, and russian society experienced the renaissance and the reformation, which shaped modern europe, only partially and belatedly. physical distance and prolonged isolation from europe would be sufficient to enhance and promote a distinctive russian culture. russians have themselves debated whether they are more european, or more asian, or instead a unique slavic civilization т-» r-» i-» i-? л ^-» i-» destined to provide the world with a “third” way. preface nikolai gogol, one of russia’s earliest and most original writers, expressed this messianic view in his novel dead souls, where he offered a speeding troika, a carriage drawn by three horses, as a metaphor for russia: russia, are you not speeding along like a fiery matchless troika? beneath you the road is smoke, the bridges thunder, and everything is left far behind. at your passage the onlooker stops amazed as by a divine miracle. . . . russia, where are you flying? answer me! there is no answer. the bells are tinkling and filling the air with their wonderful pealing; the air is torn and thundering as it turns to wind; everything on earth comes flying past and, looking askance at her, other peoples and states move aside and make way. the encyclopedia of russian history is designed to help dispel the mystery of russia. it is the first encyclopedia in the english language to comprehend the entirety of russian history, from ancient rus to the most recent events in post-soviet russia. it is not aimed primarily at specialists in the area but at general readers, students, and scholars who are curious about russia, have historical events, dates, and persons they wish to explore or papers to write on the widely varying topics and individuals contained herein. contributors include top scholars in history, russian studies, military history, economics, social science, literature, philosophy, music, and art history. the 1,500 entries have been composed by over 500 scholars from 16 countries. all were instructed to “historize” their entries, thereby placing them in the larger context of russian history. each entry is signed and feavii tures carefully chosen cross references to related entries as well as a bibliography of print and internet sources as suggested additional readings. the four volumes contain over 300 black and white maps and photographs illustrating the text, and each volume contains color inserts portraying the beauty and scope of russian peoples, art, and architecture, as well as important military and political pictorials. entries are arranged alphabetically, and the first volume includes a topical outline that organizes articles by broad categories, thereby offering teachers and students alike an informed map of russian history. a comprehensive subject index offers yet another entry point for the set, encouraging readers to explore the four volumes in greater depth. the encyclopedia is the product of recent scholarship. russian studies began as a significant field of study in the united states and europe only during the soviet era. although a small number of scholars were active before world war ii, particularly in england, the field began to grow in the united states with the onset of the cold war in the late 1940s. when the soviet union launched the first earth satellite, sputnik, in 1957, a concern for national security became a driving force for development of russian area studies. all fields grew especially rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, for it was recognized that study of the contemporary soviet social system would require in-depth knowledge of the language, history, and culture of russia. in the united states, for example, both the federal government and private foundations such as the ford foundation and the carnegie endowment funded graduate russian studies on an almost “crash” basis. whereas the russian institute of columbia university and the russian research center at harvard dominated the field initially, by the end of the 1960s all major research institutions had russian studies programs and were producing new ph.d.s in the field. in fact, most of the scholars who have ever received ph.d.s in the various fields of russian history, social science, arts, and so forth, are still active scholars. the field of russian-soviet studies now has better coverage and higher quality than ever. the 1991 collapse of the soviet union ended the ideological constraints that communism had placed on scholarly publication, allowing scholarship to blossom in post-soviet russia as well. researchers now have unprecedented access to archival and other historical materials-and to the russian people as well. the editors and i have been fortunate, therefore, to be able to select as our contributors-the most outstanding scholars not only in the united states, but also in britain, europe, and russia. twenty years ago it would not have been possible to produce such a balanced, high quality, and comprehensive encyclopedia. the last five decades or so of intensive scholarship have greatly increased our knowledge and understanding of russian history. as one views the length and breadth of the russian historical experience certain continuities and recurring patterns stand out. autocracy, for example, has ancient and strong roots in russian history. for most of its history, russia was led by all-powerful tsars, such as peter the great or nicholas i, who served willingly as autocrats, seemingly conscious of the difficulties inherent in ruling so large and diverse a country. even those tsars who sought to modify the autocracy, such as alexander ii, who emancipated the serfs, reversed course when confronted with revolutionary or nihilist opponents. soviet communism lapsed into autocracy under josef stalin, who was perhaps the most complete autocrat since peter the great. more recently, russian president, vladimir putin, appears to be tolerating a drift back toward autocracy in reaction to the democratic impulses of mikhail gorbachev and boris yeltsin. he seems to relish comparison of his rule to that of peter the great. with the exception of the years under soviet communism, orthodoxy has been autocracy’s twin. historically, the russian orthodox church has successfully resisted attempts to separate church and state and has offered support and justification for autocracy in return. consequently, the church and state have not welcomed religious diversity or promoted tolerance. judaism, catholicism, and other christian denominations, islam, and other religious faiths have suffered persecution and restrictions over the years. the soviet era differed only in than all religions were persecuted in the name of official atheism. the long-term trend has apparently reasserted itself as the growing strength of the russian orthodox church in the post-soviet years has featured renewed attempts to exclude religious competition. territorial expansion has characterized the development of russia from the earliest days, usually through warfare and hostile partitions. the great northern war brought russia to the baltic coast, while the wars of the nineteenth century expanded russia’s power into central asia. expanviii sion under the tsars included annexing territories occupied by settled peoples, as in ukraine, poland, and finland, and also by nomadic tribes, as in central asia, and the caucuses. the outcome of world war ii extended moscow’s reach into eastern europe, and during the cold war russia supported regimes in afghanistan, cuba, and insurgent movements in central america and africa. the process of empire-building brought more than 120 ethnic and national groups under russian rule. it was a costly exercise requiring a large standing army. russification versus promoting local languages and cultures in these territories was a recurring issue under tsars and commissars alike, and it remains an issue today in the russian federation. the collapse first of the soviet empire in east-central europe in 1988-1989 and then of the ussr itself in 1991 caused an equivalent contraction in moscow’s power and undermined the economy as well. consequently, although russia’s leaders have sought to maintain and even increase influence in what only russians call the “near abroad,” that is the former republics of the ussr, the empire has shrunk to its smallest extent since the eighteenth century, and the russia federation’s influence in its former republics, not to mention eastern and central europe, has been severely constrained by a lack of funds as well as by local nationalist feelings. successful modernization of europe has been viewed by russians as either a possible model for russia’s development or as a threat to her distinctive, peculiar social, political and economic institutions. from russia’s vantagepoint on the periphery of europe, to modernize has meant to westernize, with all the political and economic baggage that that implies. periodically, russia’s leaders have opened the “door” to europe, as peter the great put it, only to have it closed or restricted by those who have sought to maintain and foster russia’s unique civilization and its messianic mission in world history. in one form or another there has been a recurring struggle since the time of peter the great between the slavophiles and the westernizers, and this was even true during the soviet era. lenin and trotsky and the old bolsheviks thought they were opening russia to a global communist system. stalin closed it tightly and created an autarkic economy. nikita khrushchev, gorbachev, and yeltsin opened russia once again to the west, ultimately with catastrophic consequences for the empire. it has been difficult, however, to overcome the pull of the “russian idea,” and post-soviet development policies have been undercut by an ambiguous commitment to democratization and marketiza-tion. these issues, autocracy, orthodoxy, territorial expansionism, modernization, and cultural uniqueness, have appeared, disappeared, and reappeared throughout russian history. western and russian historians have argued at length about the strength, significance, and permanence of these themes, and the articles contained in this encyclopedia explore these issues as impartially and objectively as possible. there is no question, however, about the unique, unparalleled contributions of russian culture to art, music, literature, philosophy, and science. where would we be without glinka, mussorgsky, tchaikovsky, pushkin, gogol, dostoyevsky, tolstoy, chekhov, rublev, mendeleyev, sakharov and the many, many other artists, thinkers, and scientists that russia’s citizens of all nationalities have produced? the editors and i hope that the reader will use this encyclopedia to sample the richness of russian history and be induced to explore russian culture in depth. structure and organization of the encyclopedia project when macmillan reference usa approached me seeking an editor in chief for a projected encyclopedia of russian history, i realized that if i could persuade the best scholars in the field to serve as associate editors and on an editorial board, and if we could persuade other top scholars to write entries, the experience would be educational and highly worthwhile. i also realized that it would necessarily be a “labor of love” for all involved. participating scholars would have to believe in the intrinsic value of the project. i first approached dr. ann robertson, who was serving as managing editor of my journal, problems of post-communism, to see whether she would be willing to contribute her outstanding editorial skills as well as her expertise in political science to work closely with me as senior associate editor on the encyclopedia. next i approached professor nicholas riasanovsky of university of california at berkeley. as the leading historian of russia and director of innumerable ph.d. dissertations in the field, professor riasanovsky represented the keystone in the construction of the editorial committee. i knew that his name would assure other scholars of the serious academic nature of the project. i was soon able to recruit an ix awesome set of associate editors: daniel kaiser of grinnell college, louise mcreynolds of the university of hawaii at manoa, donald raleigh of the university of north carolina, and ronald suny of the university of chicago. with their assistance we recruited an equally outstanding advisory board. below are very brief biographies of the distinguished members on the editorial board: editor in chief james r. millar (ph.d. cornell university) is professor of economics and international affairs at the institute for european, russian and eurasian studies at the george washington university. his primary areas of research are soviet/russian economic history and economics of the transition. daniel h. kaiser (ph.d. university of chicago) is professor of history at grinnell college in iowa. his academic specialty is history and family life in early modern russia. louise mcreynolds (ph.d. university of chicago) is professor of history at the university of hawaii. she specializes in russian intellectual history and cultural studies. donald j. raleigh (ph.d. indiana university) is professor of history at the university of north carolina, chapel hill. his research specialization is twentieth-century russian and soviet history and the russian civil war. nicholas v. riasanovsky (d.phil. oxford university) is professor emeritus of history at the university of california at berkeley. he is the author of a history of russia (new york: oxford university press, 1963, sixth edition, 1999). ann e. robertson (ph.d. george washington university) is managing editor of the journal problems of post-communism, national council for eurasian and east european research. she specializes in post-soviet political science. ronald grigor suny (ph.d. columbia university, 1968) is professor of political science at the university of chicago. his research specialty is comparative politics and russian history with special attention to non-russian peoples. the editorial board assembled at george washington university in january 2001 to plan the encyclopedia. the topics we identified eventually totaled 1,500 entries. we decided to create basic article categories in an attempt to capture the range and scope of over 1,000 years of russian history and culture. as a result, articles in the encyclopedia describe: historical events documents, declarations, or treaties military campaigns or battles the arts, literature, philosophy, or science economic developments or strategies ethnic groups geographical regions political or territorial units (cities, regions, government ministries) countries prominent in russian history government policies or programs organizations, movements, or political parties influential individuals basic terms or phrases over the next few months members of the editorial board wrote scope statements and identified word lengths (ranging from 250 to 5,000 words) for the articles in their segment of the table of contents. our goal was to produce four volumes and one million words, a quota we easily could have exceeded. after authors were commissioned and assignments completed, each article was read by the appropriate member of the editorial board and by the editor in chief for final approval. macmillan reference staff has edited the entries for clarity, consistency, and style. a number of transliteration systems exist for presenting russian proper names and terms in the english language. as the main audience for the encyclopedia is not expected to be familiar with the russian language, strict adherence to any one system could appear artificial and intimidating. the editors decided to use standard american spelling of well-known proper names as they would appear in the new york times (e.g., boris yeltsin, not boris el’tsin). in all other cases transliterations conform to the conventions established by the u.s. board on geographic names. within this system we made a few exceptions: ligatures, soft signs, and hard signs are omitted; names ending in “-ii,” “-yi,” or “-yy” are shortened to “-y”; and names of tsars and saints have been anglicized, as peter the great and saint basil, not petr and vasily. the editors believe that this modified system for transliteration will be more readable and understandable than the alternatives. dates in russian history can be somewhat confusing because tsarist russia continued to use “old style” (o.s.) dates, based on the julian calendar, up to the 1917 revolution. in 1917 the julian calenx dar was 13 days behind the gregorian, which had been used in europe since 1582. the bolsheviks adopted new style (n.s.) dates. thus, the october 25th revolution was celebrated on november 7th. acknowledgments i want to thank james goldgeier, director of the institute for european, russian and eurasian studies of the george washington university for institutional support and personal encouragement. the staff of the institute, especially vedrana hadzialic and jennifer sieck, have efficiently and cheerfully helped advance this project in many ways. leah markowitz ably served as research assistant in the early phases of the project. jill lectka, director of publishing operations and joe clements, senior editor for macmillan reference usa, and their staff, have simply been superb in providing the managerial, editorial, and promotional support for the creation of the encyclopedia of russian history. they have been tactful but persistent in encouraging the editors and contributors to meet deadlines and make any necessary editorial changes. brian kinsey initiated the project in 2001 and shawn corridor joined the editorial team in the spring of 2003 to supervise final author corrections and entry preparation. we have been fortunate to have such outstanding professionals working with us. james r. millar editor in chief abkhazians b. george hewitt abortion policy sharon a. kowalsky academy of arts rosalind p. blakesley academy of sciences alexander vucinich administration for organized recruitment michael ellman administration, military david r. jones admiralty william craft brumfield adyge seteney shami adzhubei, alexei ivanovich william taubman aeroflot paul r. gregory afghanistan, relations with roger kangas aganbegyan, abel gezevich michael ellman agitprop k. andrea rusnock agrarian party of russia nikolai petrov agrarian reforms robert c. stuart agriculture robert c. stuart aigun, treaty of steven i. levine ajars b. george hewitt akayev, askar akayevich paul j. kubicek akhmatova, anna andreyevna diana senechal akhromeyev, sergei fyodorovich jacob w. kipp akhundov, mirza fath ali gregory twyman list of articles xv list of articles akkerman, convention of bruce w. menning aksakov, ivan sergeyevich abbott gleason aksakov, konstantin sergeyevich abbott gleason alash orda david r. jones alaska johanna granville albanians, caucasian robert h. hewsen alcoholism kate transchel alcohol monopoly patricia herlihy alexander i jean k. berger alexander ii stephen m. norris alexander iii peter waldron alexander mikhailovich martin dimnik alexander yaroslavich martin dimnik alexandra fedorovna nicholas ganson alexandrov, grigory alexandrovich denise j. youngblood alexei i, patriarch nathaniel davis alexei ii, patriarch nikolas k. gvosdev alexei mikhailovich philip longworth alexei nikolayevich nicholas ganson alexei petrovich lindsey hughes alexeyev, mikhail vasilievich oleg r. airapetov aliyev, heidar gerard j. libaridian allied intervention norman e. saul alliluyeva, svetlana iosifovna johanna granville altai victor l. mote altyn roman k. kovalev amalrik, andrei alexeyevich peter rollberg american relief administration william benton whisenhunt anarchism carl a. linden andrei alexandrovich martin dimnik andrei yaroslavich martin dimnik andrei yurevich martin dimnik andreyev, leonid nikolayevich peter rollberg andreyeva, nina alexandrovna jonathan harris andropov, yuri vladimirovich marc d. zlotnik andrusovo, peace of w. m. reger iv anna ivanovna zhand p. shakibi anthony khrapovitsky, metropolitan robert l. nichols anthony vadkovsky, metropolitan robert l. nichols anti-ballistic missile treaty raymond l. garthoff anti-comintern pact harold j. goldberg anti-party group william taubman antonov uprising a. delano dugarm appanage era elvira m. wilbur xvi list of articles apparat james r. millar april theses rex a. wade architecture william craft brumfield archives patricia kennedy grimsted armand, inessa elizabeth a. wood armenia and armenians george a. bournoutian armenian apostolic church paul crego armory lindsey hughes arms control walter c. clemens jr. artek jonathan d. wallace article 6 of 1977 constitution gordon b. smith assembly of the land richard hellie assortment plans susan j. linz astrakhan, khanate of roman k. kovalev atomic energy paul r. josephson august 1991 putsch ann e. robertson austerlitz, battle of frederick w. kagan austria, relations with hugh lecaine agnew autocracy zhand p. shakibi avars paul crego aviation albert l. weeks avvakum petrovich cathy j. potter azerbaijan and azeris gregory twyman babel, isaac emmanuyelovich milton ehre babi bunty brian kassof baikal-amur magistral railway christopher j. ward bakatin, vadim viktorovich jacob w. kipp bakhtin, mikhail mikhailovich gary saul morson baku audrey altstadt bakunin, mikhail alexandrovich albert l. weeks balaklava, battle of andrew lambert balalaika serge rogosin balkan wars richard frucht balkars paul crego ballet tim scholl baltic fleet johanna granville banking system, soviet pekka sutela banking system, tsarist martin c. spechler banya roman k. kovalev barannikov, viktor pavlovich jacob w. kipp barone, enrico richard e. ericson barshchina elvira m. wilbur barsov, alexander alexandrovich michael ellman baryatinsky, alexander ivanovich ronald grigor suny xvii list of articles bashkortostan and bashkirs daniel e. schafer basil i mikhail m. krom basil ii mikhail m. krom basil iii mikhail m. krom basmachis daniel e. schafer batu donald ostrowski bauer, yevgeny frantsevich joan neuberger bazarov, vladimir alexandrovich vincent barnett beard tax brian boeck bednyaki martin c. spechler belarus and belarusians david m. goldfrank belinsky, vissarion grigorievich peter rollberg belovezh accords paul j. kubicek bely, andrei diana senechal berdyayev, nikolai alexandrovich bernice glatzer rosenthal beria, lavrenti pavlovichv amy knight bering, vitus jonassen ilya vinkovetsky berlin blockade thomas parrish berlin, congress of david m. goldfrank berlin, convention of nikolas gvosdev beschestie nancy shields kollmann bessarabia john gledhill bestuzhev-ryumin, alexei petrovich john t. alexander birchbark charters simon franklin birobidzhan robert weinberg biron, ernst johann john t. alexander black earth victor l. mote black hundred jack langer black market julie hessler black repartition a. delano dugarm black sea fleet michael parrish blat martin c. spechler bloch, jan jacob w. kipp blok, alexander alexandrovich diana senechal bloody sunday walter sablinsky bobrikov, nikolai ivanovich tuomo polvinen bolotnikov, ivan isayevich chester dunning bolshevism robert c. williams bolshoi theater tim scholl bonner, yelena georgievna lisa a. kirschenbaum book of degrees gail lenhoff boretskaya, marfa ivanovna gail lenhoff borodino, battle of frederick w. kagan borotbisty serhy yekelchyk xviii list of articles boyar sergei bogatyrev boyar duma sergei bogatyrev brazauskas, algirdas alfred erich senn brest-litovsk peace sally a. boniece brezhnev doctrine kieran williams brezhnev, leonid ilich richard d. anderson jr. brodsky, joseph alexandrovich maria eitinguina bruce, james david johanna granville brusilov, alexei alexeyevich bruce w. menning bryusov, valery yakovlevich mark konecny bucharest, treaty of radu r. florescu budenny, semeon mikhailovich jonathan d. smele bukhara seymour becker bukharin, nikolai ivanovich carol gayle william moskoff bukovina john gledhill bulgakov, mikhail afanasievich diana senechal bulgakov, sergei nikolayevich catherine evtuhov bulganin, nikolai alexandrovich roger d. markwick bulgarians johanna granville bulgaria, relations with kyril drezov bund, jewish john d. klier bunin, ivan alexeyevich milton ehre bureaucracy, economic paul r. gregory buryats johanna granville butashevich-petrashevsky, mikhail vasilievich dmitri glinski bylina norman w. ingham byzantium, influence of simon franklin cabaret johanna granville cabinet of ministers, imperial john m. thompson cabinet of ministers, soviet gerald m. easter cadres policy christopher williams calendar ann e. robertson cantonists john d. klier capitalism thomas c. owen carpatho-rusyns paul robert magocsi cathedral of christ the savior nicholas ganson cathedral of st. basil lindsey hughes cathedral of st. sophia, kiev william craft brumfield cathedral of st. sophia, novgorod william craft brumfield cathedral of the archangel lindsey hughes cathedral of the dormition lindsey hughes catherine i lindsey hughes catherine ii john t. alexander catholicism gregory l. freeze xix list of articles caucasian wars robert f. baumann caucasus paul crego caves monastery david k. prestel caviar victor l. mote censorship charles a. ruud central asia roger kangas central bank of russia juliet johnson central committee johanna granville central control commission nick baron central statistical agency steven rosefielde chaadayev, peter yakovlevich raymond t. mcnally chagall, marc mark konecny chancellery system peter b. brown chapayev, vasily ivanovich denise j. youngblood chapbook literature e. anthony swift charskaya, lydia alexeyevna elizabeth jones hemenway charter of the cities george e. munro charter of the nobility nickolas lupinin chastushka roman k. kovalev chayanov, alexander vasilievich stephan merl chebrikov, viktor mikhailovich amy knight chechnya and chechens johanna nichols chekhov, anton pavlovich andrew r. durkin cherkess seteney shami chernenko, konstantin ustinovich marc d. zlotnik chernobyl david r. marples chernomyrdin, viktor stepanovich peter reddaway chernov, viktor mikhailovich sarah badcock chernuhka eliot borenstein chernyshev, alexander ivanovich frederick w. kagan chernyshevsky, nikolai gavrilovich victoria khiterer chervonets juliet johnson chesme, battle of john c. k. daly chicherin, georgy vasilievich teddy j. uldricks china, relations with steven i. levine chirikov, alexei ilich john mccannon chkalov, valery pavlovich john mccannon chkheidze, nikolai semenovich stephen jones christianization donald ostrowski chronicle of current events marshall s. shatz chronicle of human rights in the ussr marshall s. shatz chronicles gail lenhoff chubais, anatoly borisovich stefan hedlund chuikov, vasily ivanovich david m. glantz xx list of articles chukchi gail a. fondahl chukovskaya, lydia korneyevna jacqueline m. olich chukovsky, kornei ivanovich elizabeth jones hemenway church council george t. kosar church council, hundred chapters debra a. coulter chuvash daniel e. schafer cimmerians roman k. kovalev circus r?sa magn?sd?ttir civic union michael ellman civil war of 1425-1450 richard hellie civil war of 1917-1922 donald j. raleigh class system lewis h. siegelbaum climate victor l. mote cold war mark kramer collective farm robert c. stuart collective responsibility brian boeck collectivization of agriculture robert c. stuart colonial expansion richard hellie colonialism daniel brower command administrative economy richard e. ericson iii commanding heights of the economy martin c. spechler commissar sharon a. kowalsky committee for the operational management of the national economy peter rutland committee of soldiers’ mothers jacob w. kipp committees of the village poor a. delano dugarm commonwealth of independent states paul j. kubicek communism john m. thompson communist academy david brandenberger communist bloc yaroslav bilinsky communist information bureau gale stokes communist international william j. chase communist party of the russian federation luke march communist party of the soviet union graeme gill communist youth organizations anne e. gorsuch congress of people’s deputies thomas f. remington congress of russian communities nikolai petrov consistory vera shevzov constituent assembly michael melancon constitutional court gordon b. smith constitutional democratic party melissa k. stockdale constitution of 1918 albert l. weeks constitution of 1936 karen petrone constitution of 1977 peter b. maggs constitution of 1993 gordon b. smith xxi list of articles constructivism hugh d. hudson jr. control figures martin c. spechler conventional forces in europe treaty johanna granville cooperatives, law on carol gayle william moskoff cooperative societies william moskoff carol gayle copper riots jarmo t. kotilaine corporal punishment boris n. mironov corporation, russian thomas c. owen cosmopolitanism karl d. qualls cossacks bruce w. menning council for mutual economic assistance daniel r. kazmer council of ministers, soviet derek watson counterreforms daniel orlovsky country estates priscilla roosevelt court, high arbitration peter b. maggs court, supreme peter b. maggs crimea taras kuzio crimean khanate alan fisher crimean tatars alan fisher crimean war david m. goldfrank crony capitalism stefan hedlund cuban missile crisis hugh phillips cuba, relations with cole blasier cult of personality karen petrone cultural revolution sheila fitzpatrick benjamin zajicek custine, astolphe louis leonor peter rollberg customs books jarmo t. kotilaine cyril and methodius society serhy yekelchyk cyrillic alphabet ann e. robertson cyril of turov norman w. ingham czartoryski, adam jerzy johanna granville czechoslovakia, invasion of kieran williams czechoslovakia, relations with ann e. robertson dagestan paul crego daniel, metropolitan david m. goldfrank daniel, yuli markovich john mccannon danilevsky, nikolai yakovlevich albert l. weeks dargins paul crego dashkova, yekaterina romanovna michelle lamarche marrese dashnaktsutiun gerard j. libaridian decembrist movement and rebellion elena zemskova decree on land stephen k. wegren dedovshchina jonathan weiler xxii list of articles defectors, soviet era amy knight democratic party nikolai petrov democratic russia nikolai petrov democratic union nikolai petrov democratization dmitri glinski demography cynthia j. buckley denga roman k. kovalev denikin, anton ivanovich anatol shmelev denmark, relations with jarmo t. kotilaine deportations eric lohr derzhavin, gavryl romanovich johanna granville de-stalinization graeme gill d?tente marie-pierre rey developed socialism vladimir e. shlapentokh dezhnev, semen ivanovich john mccannon diagilev, sergei pavlovich tim scholl dialectical materialism alfred b. evans jr. dictatorship of the proletariat ray taras diocese cathy j. potter dionisy a. dean mckenzie disenfranchized persons golfo alexopoulos dissident movement yaroslav bilinsky dmitry alexandrovich martin dimnik dmitry, false chester dunning dmitry mikhailovich martin dimnik dmitry of uglich brian boeck doctors’ plot david brandenberger dolgans johanna granville domostroi carolyn johnston pouncy donation books ludwig steindorff donskoy, dmitry ivanovich gail lenhoff dostoyevsky, fyodor mikhailovich peter rollberg dudayev, dzhokhar dmitri glinski dugin, alexander gelevich jacob w. kipp duma john m. thompson dunayevsky, isaak osipovich richard stites dungan johanna granville durova, nadezhda andreyevna mary zirin dvoeverie stella rock dvorianstvo richard hellie dyachenko, tatiana borisovna peter reddaway dyak peter b. brown dzerzhinsky, felix edmundovich robert e. blobaum economic growth, extensive martin c. spechler xxiii list of articles economic growth, imperial paul r. gregory economic growth, intensive steven rosefielde economic growth, soviet gur ofer economic reform commission michael ellman economism martin c. spechler economy, post-soviet paul r. gregory economy, tsarist carol gayle william moskoff edinonachalie susan j. linz education brian kassof ehrenburg, ilya grigorovich john patrick farrell eisenstein, sergei mikhailovich joan neuberger electoral commission nikolai petrov electricity grid peter rutland elizabeth john t. alexander emancipation act julia ulyannikova empire, ussr as zhand p. shakibi engels, friedrich alfred b. evans jr. enlightenment, impact of olga tsapina enserfment richard hellie enterprise, soviet susan j. linz environmentalism rachel may episcopate zoe knox estonia and estonians art leete ethiopian civil war johanna granville ethnography, russian and soviet nathaniel knight evenki gail a. fondahl faberg?, peter carl louise mcreynolds family code of 1926 wendy goldman family code on marriage, the family, and guardianship wendy goldman family edict of 1944 rebecca balmas neary family laws of 1936 wendy goldman famine of 1891-1892 richard g. robbins jr. famine of 1921-1922 mark b. tauger famine of 1932-1933 mark b. tauger famine of 1946 nicholas ganson far eastern region gilbert rozman fatherland-all russia nikolai petrov feast books ludwig steindorff february revolution rex a. wade federal assembly thomas f. remington federalism roger kangas federal property fund james r. millar federation treaties edward w. walker feldman, grigory alexandrovich martin c. spechler xxiv list of articles feldsher samuel c. ramer fellow travelers karl e. loewenstein feminism linda edmondson ferghana valley michael rouland feudalism richard hellie filaret drozdov, metropolitan robert nichols filaret romanov, patriarch russell e. martin finland paul j. kubicek finns and karelians rein taagepera firebird norman w. ingham five-hundred-day plan robert w. campbell five-year plans holland hunter florence, council of george p. majeska folklore patricia arant folk music susannah lockwood smith fondoderzhateli paul r. gregory fonvizin, denis ivanovich johanna granville food darra goldstein foreign debt stefan hedlund foreign trade martin c. spechler france, relations with marie-pierre rey free economic society carol gayle william moskoff freemasonry olga tsapina french influence in russia martine mespoulet french war of 1812 frederick w. kagan frontier fortifications brian davies frunze, mikhail vasilievich michael parrish full economic accounting susan j. linz fundamental laws of 1906 oleg budnitskii funded commodities james r. millar futurism hugh d. hudson jr. fyodor alexeyevich lindsey hughes fyodor ii chester dunning fyodor ivanovich johanna granville fyodorov, boris grigorievich peter rutland fyodorov, ivan hugh m. olmsted gagarin, yuri alexeyevich phyllis conn gagauz mikhail guboglo gaidar, yegor timurovich peter rutland gamsakhurdia, zviad stephen jones gapon, georgy apollonovich walter sablinsky gaspirali, ismail bey edward j. lazzerini gatchina william craft brumfield general secretary norma c. noonan xxv list of articles geneticists james r. millar geneva summit of 1985 raymond l. garthoff genoa conference teddy j. uldricks genocide gerard j. libaridian geography victor l. mote georgia and georgians paul crego georgian orthodox church paul crego german democratic republic melissa r. jordine german settlers kevin alan brook germany, relations with melissa r. jordine gigantomania victoria khiterer ginzburg, evgenia semenovna alison rowley gkos pekka sutela glasnost carl a. linden glavki martin c. spechler glavlit brian kassof glinka, mikhail ivanovich matthias stadelmann glinskaya, yelena vasilyevna isolde thyr?t gnezdovo heidi m. sherman godunov, boris fyodorovich chester dunning gogol, nikolai vasilievich diana senechal golden age of russian literature michael a. denner golden horde donald ostrowski gold standard juliet johnson golitsyn, vasily vasilievich lindsey hughes goncharova, natalia sergeyevna jane a. sharp goncharov, ivan alexandrovich catherine o’neil goods famine robert c. stuart gorbachev, mikhail sergeyevich archie brown gorbachev, raisa maximovna archie brown gorchakov, alexander mikhailovich norman e. saul gordon, patrick leopold jarmo t. kotilaine goremykin, ivan longinovich john m. thompson gorky, maxim tovah yedlin gosbank juliet johnson gosizdat brian kassof goskomstat martine mespoulet gosplan paul r. gregory gosti samuel h. baron gostinaya sotnya jarmo t. kotilaine gosudaryev dvor sergei bogatyrev governing senate zhand p. shakibi grain crisis of 1928 carol gayle william moskoff grain trade boris n. mironov xxvi list of articles grand alliance david m. glantz grand prince janet martin great britain, relations with johanna granville great northern war paul a. bushkovitch great reforms daniel field greece, relations with johanna granville greeks patricia herlihy green movement a. delano dugarm griboedov, alexander sergeyevich johanna granville grigorenko, peter grigorievich jonathan weiler grishin, viktor vasilievich terry d. clark grivna roman k. kovalev gromov, boris vsevolodovich jacob w. kipp gromyko, andrei andreyevich graeme gill grossman, vasily semenovich karl e. loewenstein guards, regiments of frederick w. kagan guba administrative system brian davies guberniya nick baron guilds thomas c. owen gulag david j. nordlander gum julie hessler gumilev, lev nikolayevich jacob w. kipp gumilev, nikolai stepanovich brian kassof gypsy darrell slider gypsymania richard stites hagiography gail lenhoff hague peace conferences walter c. clemens jr. hanseatic league lawrence n. langer hard budget constraints susan j. linz hayek, friedrich richard e. ericson health care services, imperial samuel c. ramer health care services, soviet mark g. field hegel, georg wilhelm friedrich albert l. weeks helsinki accords christopher j. ward herzen, alexander ivanovich dmitri glinski higher party school peter rutland hilarion, metropolitan david k. prestel his majesty’s own chancery zhand p. shakibi historical songs norman w. ingham historiography oleg budnitskii holy alliance david wetzel holy synod debra a. coulter homeless children jacqueline m. olich hrushevsky, mikhail sergeyevich serhy yekelchyk xxvii list of articles human rights peter juviler hungarian revolution johanna granville hungary, relations with johanna granville huns roman k. kovalev icons gregory l. freeze idealism boris gubman igor martin dimnik ilminsky, nikolai ivanovich isabelle kreindler immigration and emigration eric lohr imperial russian geographical society victor l. mote imperial russian technological society martine mespoulet index number relativity gur ofer indicative planning martin c. spechler industrialization robert c. stuart industrialization, rapid gur ofer industrialization, soviet paul r. gregory inorodtsy john d. klier input-output analysis steven rosefielde institute of red professors david brandenberger instruction, legislative commission of catherine ii michelle denbeste intelligentsia victoria khiterer intermediate range nuclear forces treaty walter c. clemens jr. international space station john m. logsdon inter-regional deputies’ group peter reddaway iran, relations with robert o. freedman iraq, relations with robert o. freedman iron curtain karl d. qualls islam adeeb khalid israel, relations with robert o. freedman italy, relations with j. calvitt clarke iii ivan i martin dimnik ivan ii martin dimnik ivan iii mikhail m. krom ivan iv sergei bogatyrev ivan v paul a. bushkovitch ivan vi lindsey hughes ivashko, vladimir antonovich david r. marples izba richard hellie izvestiya matthew e. lenoe izyaslav i martin dimnik izyaslav mstislavich martin dimnik jackson-vanik agreement robert o. freedman jadidism edward j. lazzerini japan, relations with charles e. ziegler xxviii list of articles jassy, treaty of bruce w. menning jews john d. klier joakim, patriarch cathy j. potter job, patriarch debra a. coulter joseph of volotsk, st. david m. goldfrank journalism charles a. ruud judaizers david m. goldfrank july days of 1917 michael c. hickey kabardians seteney shami kaganovich, lazar moyseyevich kate transchel kal 007 timothy thomas kaliningrad richard j. krickus kalinin, mikhail ivanovich kate transchel kalmyks johanna granville kamenev, lev borisovich michael c. hickey kandinsky, vassily vassilyvich mark konecny kantorovich, leonid vitaliyevich martin c. spechler kaplan, fanya sally a. boniece karachai brian boeck karakalpaks paul j. kubicek karakhan declaration teddy j. uldricks karamzin, nikolai mikhailovich andreas sch?nle kasyanov, mikhail mikhailovich peter rutland katkov, mikhail nikiforovich victoria khiterer katyn forest massacre albert l. weeks kaufman, konstantin petrovich daniel brower kazakhstan and kazakhs david r. jones kazan donald ostrowski kellogg-briand pact teddy j. uldricks kerensky, alexander fyodorovich rex a. wade khabarov, yerofei pavlovich john mccannon khakass johanna granville khalkin-gol, battle of mary r. habeck khanty art leete khasbulatov, ruslan imranovich ann e. robertson khazars roman k. kovalev khiva daniel brower khmelnitsky, bohdan frank e. sysyn khomyakov, alexei stepanovich abbott gleason khovanshchina lindsey hughes khozraschet susan j. linz khrushchev, nikita sergeyevich william taubman khutor william moskoff carol gayle kievan caves patericon david k. prestel xxix list of articles kievan rus janet martin kireyevsky, ivan vasilievich abbott gleason kirill-beloozero monastery robert romanchuk kiriyenko, sergei vladilenovich hugh phillips kirov, sergei mironovich paul m. hagenloh klyuchevsky, vasily osipovich boris n. mironov kokoshin, andrei afanasievich jacob w. kipp kolchak, alexander vasilievich n. g. o. pereira kollontai, alexandra mikhailovna barbara evans clements komi rein taagepera komuch victor m. fic kondratiev, nikolai dmitrievich vincent barnett konev, ivan stepanovich michael parrish konstantin nikolayevich larissa zakharova kopeck jarmo t. kotilaine koreans andrei lankov korean war kathryn weathersby korea, relations with andrei lankov korenizatsya robert maier kormchaya kniga martin dimnik kormlenie stefan hedlund kornai, janos martin c. spechler kornilov affair rex a. wade korolenko, vladimir galaktionovich johanna granville korsh theater louise mcreynolds koryaks johanna granville korzhakov, alexander vasilievich peter reddaway kosmodemyanskaya, zoya rosalinde sartorti kosygin, alexei nikolayevich graeme gill kosygin reforms martin c. spechler kotoshikhin, grigory karpovich benjamin uroff kovalev, sergei adamovich peter reddaway kovalevskaya, sofia vasilievna mary zirin kozlov, frol romanovich william taubman kozyrev, andrei vladimirovich paul j. kubicek krasnov, pyotr nikolayevich jonathan d. smele kravchuk, leonid makarovich robert s. kravchuk kremlin william craft brumfield kremlinology anthony d’agostino kritzman, lev natanovich nick baron kronstadt uprising a. delano dugarm kropotkin, pyotr alexeyevich john slatter krupskaya, nadezhda konstantinovna elizabeth a. wood krylov, ivan andreyevich louise mcreynolds xxx list of articles kryuchkov, vladimir alexandrovich amy knight kuchuk kainarji, treaty of norman e. saul kulaks stephan merl kuleshov, lev vladimirovich denise j. youngblood kulikovo field, battle of donald ostrowski kulturnost julia obertreis kunayev, dinmukhammed akhmedovich david r. jones kurbsky, andrei mikhailovich sergei bogatyrev kurds johanna granville kuril islands charles e. ziegler kuritsyn, fyodor vasilevich david m. goldfrank kuropatkin, alexei nikolayevich david schimmelpenninck van der oye kursk, battle of david m. glantz kursk submarine disaster jacob w. kipp kustar e. anthony swift kutuzov, mikhail ilarionovich frederick w. kagan kuybyshev, valerian vladimirovich kate transchel kuznetsov, nikolai gerasimovich michael parrish kyrgyzstan and kyrgyz roger kangas labor david pretty labor books robert c. stuart labor day robert c. stuart labor theory of value alfred b. evans jr. lake baikal rachel may land and freedom party christopher williams land captain oleg budnitskii landsbergis, vytautas alfred erich senn land tenure, imperial era michelle lamarche marrese land tenure, soviet and post-soviet stephen k. wegren language laws vladislava reznik latvia and latvians andrejs plakans law code of 1649 richard hellie lay of igor’s campaign norman w. ingham lazarev institute george a. bournoutian league of armed neutrality norman e. saul league of nations teddy j. uldricks league of the militant godless daniel peris lebed, alexander ivanovich jacob w. kipp lefortovo georg wurzer left opposition kate transchel left socialist revolutionaries michael melancon legal systems michael newcity legislative commission of 1767-1768 janet hartley leichoudes, ioannikios and sophronios nikolaos a. chrissidis xxxi list of articles leipzig, battle of oleg budnitskii lena goldfields massacre michael melancon lend lease mikhail suprun leningrad affair richard bidlack leningrad, siege of richard bidlack lenin’s testament christopher williams lenin’s tomb karen petrone lenin, vladimir ilich christopher read leontiev, konstantin nikolayevich alfred b. evans jr. lermontov, mikhail yurievich zhand p. shakibi leskov, nikolai semenovich peter rollberg lesnaya, battle of paul a. bushkovitch lezgins paul crego liberal democratic party nikolai petrov liberalism hugh phillips liberman, yevsei grigorevich robert w. campbell ligachev, yegor kuzmich jonathan harris likhachev, dmitry sergeyevich john patrick farrell lithuania and lithuanians alfred erich senn litvinov, maxim maximovich hugh phillips living church movement edward e. roslof livonian war mikhail m. krom lobachevsky, nikolai ivanovich alexander vucinich local government and administration igor yeykelis lomonosov, mikhail vasilievich alexander vucinich loris-melikov, mikhail tarielovich oleg budnitskii lotman, yuri mikhailovich johanna granville lovers of wisdom, the victoria frede lubok gary thurston lubyanka georg wurzer lukashenko, alexander grigorievich david r. marples lukyanov, anatoly ivanovich ann e. robertson lunacharsky, anatoly vasilievich sheila fitzpatrick luzhkov, yuri mikhailovich terry d. clark lysenko, trofim denisovich r?sa magn?sd?ttir machine tractor stations robert c. stuart mafia capitalism stefan hedlund main political directorate ann e. robertson makarov, stepan osipovich jacob w. kipp makary, metropolitan donald ostrowski makhno, nestor ivanovich jonathan d. smele malenkov, georgy maximilyanovich david r. marples malevich, kazimir severinovich hugh d. hudson jr. malta summit raymond l. garthoff xxxii list of articles mandelshtam, nadezhda yakovlevna judith e. kalb mandelshtam, osip emilievich judith e. kalb manifesto of 1763 john t. alexander mansi rein taagepera mari el and the mari seppo lallukka market socialism richard ericson marriage and family life william g. wagner martov, yuli osipovich nick baron marxism alfred b. evans jr. maslenitsa roman k. kovalev material balances susan j. linz material product system misha v. belkindas matryoshka dolls priscilla roosevelt matveyev, artamon sergeyevich martha luby lahana maxim the greek, st. hugh m. olmsted mayakovsky, vladimir vladimirovich mark konecny mazepa, hetman ivan stepanovich lindsey hughes medvedev, roy alexandrovich roger d. markwick medvedev, sylvester agafonikovich nikolaos a. chrissidis medvedev, zhores alexandrovich r?sa magn?sd?ttir melnikov, konstantin stepanovich hugh d. hudson jr. memorial peter reddaway mendeleyev, dmitry ivanovich alexander vucinich mensheviks alice k. pate menshikov, alexander danilovich lindsey hughes mercantilism martin c. spechler merchants thomas c. owen meskhetian turks justin odum mestnichestvo nancy shields kollmann metropolitan donald ostrowski meyerhold, vsevolod yemilievich sharon marie carnicke mighty handful matthias stadelmann migration cynthia j. buckley mikhailovsky, nikolai konstantinovich dmitri glinski mikhalkov, nikita sergeyevich joan neuberger mikoyan, anastas ivanovich roger d. markwick military art bruce w. menning military doctrine bruce w. menning military-economic planning mark harrison military, imperial era bruce w. menning military-industrial complex steven rosefielde military intelligence david schimmelpenninck van der oye military reforms john w. steinberg military, soviet and post-soviet roger r. reese xxxiii list of articles milyukov, paul nikolayevich oleg budnitskii milyutin, dmitry alexeyevich larissa zakharova milyutin, nikolai alexeyevich daniel field mingrelians b. george hewitt minin, kuzma maureen perrie ministries, economic paul r. gregory ministry of foreign trade james r. millar ministry of internal affairs mark galeotti mir stephan merl mir space station john m. logsdon mniszech, marina chester dunning moiseyev, mikhail alexeyevich jacob w. kipp moldova and moldovans william crowther molotov, vyacheslav mikhailovich derek watson monasticism scott m. kenworthy monetary overhang pekka sutela monetary system, soviet pekka sutela montenegro, relations with john d. treadway mordvins isabelle kreindler morozova, feodosya prokopevna nada boskovska morozov, boris ivanovich richard hellie morozov, pavel trofimovich catriona kelly moscow terry d. clark moscow agricultural society robert e. johnson moscow art theater sharon marie carnicke moscow baroque lindsey hughes moscow, battle of anthony young moscow olympics of 1980 paul r. josephson moskvitin, ivan yurievich john mccannon motion pictures denise j. youngblood movement for democratic reforms jonathan harris movement in support of the army nikolai petrov mstislav martin dimnik muraviev, nikita johanna granville musavat gregory twyman muscovy david m. goldfrank museum, hermitage ann e. robertson music matthias stadelmann myasoedov affair eric lohr nagorno-karabakh gerard j. libaridian nagrodskaya, evdokia apollonovna johanna granville nakhichevan gregory twyman nakhimov, pavel stepanovich john c. k. daly napoleon i marie-pierre rey xxxiv list of articles narimanov, nariman audrey altstadt narva, battles of paul a. bushkovitch naryshkina, natalia kirillovna lindsey hughes national library of russia janice t. pilch nationalism in the arts stephen m. norris nationalism in the soviet union victoria khiterer nationalism in tsarist empire timothy snyder nationalities policies, soviet jeremy smith nationalities policies, tsarist andreas kappeler nation and nationality vera tolz navarino, battle of john c. k. daly nazarbayev, nursultan abishevich david r. jones nazi-soviet pact of 1939 derek watson near abroad christopher williams nechayev, sergei geradievich philip pomper nekrasov, nikolai alexeyevich johanna granville nemchinov, vasily sergeyevich robert w. campbell nemtsov, boris ivanovich hugh phillips nenets gail a. fondahl neoclassicism rosalind p. gray nerchinsk, treaty of jarmo t. kotilaine neronov, ivan cathy j. potter nesselrode, karl robert david m. goldfrank net material product misha v. belkindas new economic policy martin c. spechler new-formation regiments w. m. reger iv new political thinking archie brown newspapers matthew e. lenoe new statute of commerce richard hellie nicaragua, relations with cole blasier nicholas i stephen m. norris nicholas ii peter waldron nihilism and nihilists alfred b. evans jr. nijinsky, vaslav fomichv tim scholl nikitin, afanasy gail lenhoff nikon, patriarch cathy j. potter nil sorsky, st. david m. goldfrank nogai roman k. kovalev nomenklatura albert l. weeks normanist controversy heidi m. sherman north atlantic treaty organization andrew a. michta northern convoys mikhail suprun northern fleet johanna granville northern peoples gail a. fondahl xxxv list of articles norway, relations with jarmo t. kotilaine novgorod, archbishop of lawrence n. langer novgorod judicial charter lawrence n. langer novgorod the great janet martin novikov, nikolai ivanovich johanna granville novocherkassk uprising samuel h. baron novosibirsk report alfred b. evans jr. novosiltsev, nikolai nikolayevich hugh phillips novozhilov, viktor valentinovich robert w. campbell novy mir catharine nepomnyashchy nystadt, treaty of lindsey hughes obrok elvira m. wilbur obruchev, nikolai nikolayevich oleg r. airapetov obshchina steven a. grant occultism maria carlson october 1993 events peter reddaway october general strike of 1905 gerald d. surh october manifesto oleg budnitskii october revolution alexander rabinowitch octobrist party zhand p. shakibi odoyevsky, vladimir fyodorovich johanna granville official nationality cynthia hyla whittaker ogarkov, nikolai vasilevich jacob w. kipp okolnichy sergei bogatyrev okudzhava, bulat shalovich gerald smith old believer committee roy r. robson old believers roy r. robson old style ann e. robertson oleg martin dimnik olga david k. prestel opera albrecht gaub operation barbarossa a. delano dugarm oprichnina sergei bogatyrev ordin-nashchokin, afanasy lavrentievich martha luby lahana ordzhonikidze, grigory konstantinovich nick baron organized crime louise shelley orgburo christopher williams orlova, lyubov petrovna denise j. youngblood orlov, grigory grigorievich john t. alexander orthodoxy edward e. roslof osetins brian boeck osorina, yulianya ustinovna nada boskovska ostromir gospel david k. prestel ostrovsky, alexander nikolayevich gary thurston xxxvi list of articles otrepev, grigory chester dunning our home is russia party nikolai petrov pacific fleet johanna granville paganism david k. prestel pakistan, relations with johanna granville palekh painting k. andrea rusnock pale of settlement diana fisher paleologue, sophia isolde thyr?t pallas, peter-simon alexander vucinich pamyat zoe knox panslavism abbott gleason paris, congress and treaty of 1856 david m. goldfrank paris, first and second treaties of marie-pierre rey party congresses and conferences robert v. daniels party of russian unity and accord nikolai petrov passport system golfo alexopoulos pasternak, boris leonidovich larissa rudova patriarchate paul a. bushkovitch paul i marie-pierre rey pavliuchenko, lyudmila mikhailovna kazimiera j. cottam pavlova, anna matveyevna tim scholl pavlov, ivan petrovich sharon a. kowalsky pavlov, valentin sergeyevich johanna granville peasant economy stephen k. wegren peasantry robert e. johnson peasant uprisings dmitri glinski pechenegs roman k. kovalev peking, treaty of steven i. levine pelevin, viktor olegovich eliot borenstein people’s commissariat of nationalities ronald grigor suny people’s control committee ann e. robertson people’s houses e. anthony swift people’s party of free russia nikolai petrov people’s will, the deborah pearl perestroika archie brown permanent revolution carl a. linden perovskaya, sofia lvovna oleg budnitskii persian gulf war robert o. freedman pestel, pavel ivanovich paul crego peter i lindsey hughes peter ii lindsey hughes peter iii lindsey hughes peter and paul fortress william craft brumfield petrashevtsy kathryn weathersby xxxvii list of articles petrov, grigory spiridonovich jennifer hedda petrushka patricia arant petty tutelage susan j. linz photography erika wolf pimen, patriarch nathaniel davis pirogov, nikolai ivanovich alexander vucinich pisarev, dmitry ivanovich johanna granville planners’ preferences richard ericson platon (levshin) j. eugene clay platonov, sergei fyodorovich oleg budnitskii plehve, vyacheslav konstantinovich edward h. judge plekhanov, georgy valentinovich samuel h. baron plenum julie degraffenried pobedonostsev, konstantin michelle denbeste podgorny, nikolai viktorovich roger d. markwick podyachy peter b. brown podzol victor l. mote pogodin, mikhail petrovich johanna granville pogroms david pretty pokrovsky, mikhail nikolayevich george enteen poland theodore r. weeks polar explorers john mccannon poles johanna granville polish rebellion of 1863 brian porter politburo graeme gill political party system thomas f. remington polotsky, simeon paul a. bushkovitch polovtsy roman k. kovalev poltava, battle of jarmo t. kotilaine polyane roman k. kovalev pomestie richard hellie ponomarev, boris kharitonovich roger d. markwick popov, alexander stepanovich johanna granville popov, gavriil kharitonovich erik s. herron popov, pavel ilich robert w. campbell popular front policy harold j. goldberg populism christopher williams port arthur, siege of bruce w. menning portsmouth, treaty of nikolas gvosdev posadnik lawrence n. langer possessors and non-possessors david m. goldfrank postal system alison rowley potemkin, grigory alexandrovich john t. alexander potemkin mutiny igor yeykelis xxxviii list of articles potsdam conference joseph l. nogee pozharsky, dmitry mikhailovich maureen perrie pravda matthew e. lenoe preobrazhensky guards bruce w. menning preobrazhensky, yevgeny alexeyevich don filtzer presidency erik s. herron presidential council christopher williams presidium of supreme soviet richard hellie primakov, yevgeny maximovich robert v. daniels primary chronicle donald ostrowski primary party organization christopher williams prime minister gerald m. easter primitive socialist accumulation james r. millar prisons georg wurzer prison songs julia ulyannikova privatization marie lavigne procuracy gordon b. smith prodnalog stephen k. wegren prodrazverstka stephen k. wegren production sharing agreement james r. millar prokofiev, sergei sergeyevich matthias stadelmann prokopovich, feofan gregory l. freeze proletkult lynn mally propp, vladimir iakovlevich natalie o. kononenko prostitution laurie bernstein protazanov, yakov alexandrovic denise j. youngblood protestantism paul d. steeves protopopov, alexander dmitrievich nicholas v. riasanovsky provisional government daniel orlovsky prussia, relations with hugh phillips pruth river, campaign and treaty of jean k. berger pskov judicial charter lawrence n. langer public opinion studies steven a. grant pugachev, emelian ivanovich john t. alexander pugo, boris karlovich jacob w. kipp purges, the great gabor t. rittersporn pushkin, alexander sergeyevich diana senechal pushkin house vanessa bittner putin, vladimir vladimirovich dale herspring pytatakov, georgy leonidovich kate transchel quadruple alliance and quintuple alliance hugh phillips rabbinical commission chaeran y. freeze rabkrin nick baron rachmaninov, sergei vasilievich albert l. weeks xxxix list of articles radek, karl bernardovich william j. chase radishchev, alexander nikolayevich w. gareth jones radzinsky, edvard stanislavich jacob w. kipp raikin, arkady isaakovich robert weinberg railways victor l. mote raionirovanie james heinzen rapallo, treaty of harold j. goldberg rasputin, grigory yefimovich joseph t. fuhrmann rastrelli, bartolomeo william craft brumfield ratchet effect susan j. linz razin rebellion james g. hart raznochintsy victoria khiterer redemption payments a. delano dugarm red guards rex a. wade red square william craft brumfield red terror vladimir brovkin referendum of april 1993 nikolai petrov referendum of december 1993 gordon b. smith referendum of march 1991 edward w. walker refuseniks jonathan d. wallace regionalism susan smith-peter reitern, mikhail khristoforovich jacob w. kipp religion gregory l. freeze repin, ilya yefimovich louise mcreynolds repressed inflation steven rosefielde revolution of 1905 abraham ascher reykjavik summit raymond l. garthoff right opposition kate transchel rimsky-korsakov, nikolai andreyevich matthias stadelmann rodzianko, mikhail vladimirovich john m. thompson roerich, nicholas konstantinovich john mccannon romania, relations with radu r. florescu romanova, anastasia isolde thyr?t romanova, anastasia nikolayevna ann e. robertson romanov dynasty russell e. martin romanov, grigory vasilievich ann e. robertson romanov, mikhail fyodorovich russell e. martin romanticism yuri tulupenko rostislav martin dimnik rostovtsev, mikhail ivanovich a. delano dugarm rota system janet martin route to greeks roman k. kovalev ruble jarmo t. kotilaine ruble control pekka sutela xl list of articles rublev, andrei a. dean mckenzie ruble zone juliet johnson rumyantsev, peter alexandrovich lindsey hughes rurik martin dimnik rurikid dynasty janet martin russia-belarus union omer fisher russia company maria salomon arel russian association of proletarian writers brian kassof russian federal securities commission james r. millar russian federation johanna granville russian geographical society victor l. mote russian justice daniel h. kaiser russian national unity party william d. jackson russian orthodox church gregory l. freeze russians nancy ries russian soviet federated socialist republic johanna granville russian state library janice t. pilch russia’s democratic choice nikolai petrov russification theodore r. weeks russo-japanese war john w. steinberg russo-persian wars robert f. baumann russo-turkish wars bruce w. menning rutskoi, alexander vladimirovich jacob w. kipp rybkin, ivan petrovich nikolai petrov rykov, alexei ivanovich derek watson ryleyev, kondraty fyodorovich johanna granville ryutin, martemyan james white ryzhkov, nikolai ivanovich ann e. robertson saints gregory l. freeze sakha and yakuts erin k. crouch sakharov, andrei dmitrievich lisa a. kirschenbaum saltykov-shchedrin, mikhail yevgrafovich emil draitser sami rein taagepera samizdat nickolas lupinin samoilova, kondordiya nikolayevna barbara evans clements samoupravlenie susan j. linz san stefano, treaty of oleg r. airapetov sarmatians brian porter sarts michael rouland sberbank juliet johnson science and technology policy paul r. josephson science fiction yvonne helen howell scientific socialism michael ellman scissors crisis robert c. stuart xli list of articles scythians roman k. kovalev second economy michael alexeev second secretary albert l. weeks secretariat norma c. noonan sectarianism j. eugene clay security council peter rutland serapion brothers elizabeth jones hemenway serbia, relations with richard frucht serednyaki martin c. spechler serfdom richard hellie sergei, patriarch edward e. roslof sergius, st. david b. miller service state richard hellie sevastopol jacob w. kipp seven-year plan martin c. spechler seven years’ war stephen m. norris shahumian, stepan georgievich ronald grigor suny shakhrai, sergei mikhailovich ann e. robertson shakhty trial peter h. solomon jr. shamil michael rouland shaposhnikov, boris mikhailovich bruce w. menning shatalin, stanislav sergeyevich dmitri glinski shcharansky, anatoly nikolayevich johanna granville shchepkin, mikhail semeonovich louise mcreynolds shcherbatov, mikhail mikhailovich johanna granville shevardnadze, eduard amvrosievich melvin goodman shevchenko, taras gregorevich serhy yekelchyk shlyapnikov, alexander gavrilovich barbara allen shock therapy stefan hedlund shockworkers lewis h. siegelbaum sholokhov, mikhail alexandrovich karl e. loewenstein short course david brandenberger shostakovich, dmitri dmitrievich matthias stadelmann show trials paul m. hagenloh shuisky, vasily ivanovich chester s. l. dunning shumeiko, vladimir filippovich ann e. robertson siberia victor l. mote sikorsky, igor ivanovich johanna granville silver age john e. bowlt simeon martin dimnik simonov, konstantin mikhailovich karl e. loewenstein simonov monaster.
    Millar James - Encyclopedia of Russian History

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